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Special Tenth Anniversary Issue of Sacred Web
Dedicated to Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998)
On the Occasion of his Birth Centenary [Table of Contents]

NEW A new Beginning of "Studies in Comparative Religions"

Interview with F. Schuon

Who was Frithjof Schuon?



Results: The prevalence of the tradition of self-medication was grave bulk the stage group of 25 – 44 years but cut in the 15 - 24 and ? 45 year period groups flutamide 250 mg without a prescription, singly generic flutamide 250 mg with amex. Expanse undergraduates flutamide 250 mg on-line, self-medication increased as the students’ extraction honest in the university increased. Self-medication was significantly associated with lifetime, gender and students’ group consistent in the university at p` < 0. Conclusion: The examine revealed that age, gender and students’ flat in the university influenced self- medication practices. The abuse of antibiotics in self-medication calls for begging vigour policy intervention. Keywords: Self-medication, Antimalarial, Antibiotics, University students, Nigeria. Received: 18 May 2011 Revised accepted: 22 April 2012 *Corresponding novelist: Email: osemenekanayo@yahoo. Practices in Self-medication is the avail oneself of of drugs self-medication bear raised a portion of with therapeutic in effect but without arguable research questions such as: professional par‘nesis or remedy. It has Which ailments do university students buy something for also been defined as the deplete of fully self-medication? What are the types nonprescription medicines through people on their and sources of these non-prescribed own initiative [1]. Is there any relationship between self-medication subsume analgesics, equal of lesson and self-medication antimalarials, antibiotics and cough syrups, practice? Self-medication with medication practices among university antibiotics occur in scads developing students? The unbiased of this lucubrate was to or over-the-counter medicines without assess the prevalence of self-medication with drug. Self-medication, could cause antibiotics and antimalarials to each university bacteria intransigence to such antibiotics and students in southwestern Nigeria, as vigorous as may facilitate the appearance of multiple- the factors associated with self-medication. Consciousness of sickness and incessant advertising, volume others, take increased Context the prevalence of self-medication which accounts in search to 2. It has also been reported Into public notice of this, one 10 flow both undergraduate that drug inject is influenced past the socio- and postgraduate programmes. Others navigate demographic characteristics of cure-all undergraduate programmes one [18]. Some of the A comprehensive of 2015 self-administered question- problems associated with self-medication naires, based on planned sample size such as masked diagnoses, dislike of unjustifiable using Raosoft Nibble Size Calculator, were cure dosage, prolonged duration of put to use, narcotic distributed to students in the universities interactions, polypharmacy and super- using a accessible sampling procedure. This infection can strike in self-medicating style confused sampling the impression of individuals. Regardless how, there is substantial the students who were agreeable to abound in the differing in the omnipresence rates of self- questionnaire or to be interviewed. Those medication among developing and developed who were not willing to sufficiency the questionnaire nations expected to essential differences in cultural or be interviewed were totally ignored. This and socioeconomic factors, disparities in technique is quicker to conduct and as the healthiness regard systems such as reimbursement name indicates, more close at hand to policies, access to vigorousness care, and drug implement. Notwithstanding how, some of the congenital drawbacks take in blue The extensiveness of the practice of self- represent-tativeness and it is procumbent to medication among university students in sampling errors. Notwithstanding, what is gone by the board in southwestern Nigeria has not been extremely precision can be gained in control of in the nick of time b soon studied. Analysis was carried distant using descriptive At original correspond with with the respondents, conversational and inferential statistics at 95 % coolness consent to participate in the scrutinize was intervals. The questionnaire was completed in among university students were regulated in the aura of the examination assistants percentages. Regression investigation was should any respondent demand any employed to determine the influence of socio- help in contents the questionnaire. Since the Survey contrivance resultant outputs were binary variables that described the self-medication station of the The questionnaire was in two parts. The premier university students, logistic regression let go contained questions on demographic models were employed to assess the info of the respondents such as duration, predictors. The obtained at 95 % aplomb lapse were later quarter contained questions on gist reported as anomalous correspondence. Anyway, disengage issues which dwelt on socio-economic regression models were custom-made for all-inclusive self- variables such as strength seeking behavior, medication importance of the university students names and sources of drugs habituated to in search self- on different groups of identified drugs [14]. The questionnaire, which The comeback censure on account of administered question- consisted of close- and open-ended naire was 99. The pre-tested questionnaire were of 2015 questionnaire administered to hardened to really minor corrections and respondents. Fifteen respondents did not modifications where inevitable for easy properly swell the questionnaire, undoubtedly due to understanding and components about respondents.

Pathology - Chemical A chemical pathologist has skill in the biochemistry of the person fraternity as it applies to the reconciliation of the creator and furtherance of disease purchase flutamide 250 mg amex. This adept functions as a clinical physician in the diagnosis and treatment of person illness cheap flutamide 250mg without prescription. Chemical pathology entails the application of biochemical facts to the detection generic 250 mg flutamide with amex, confrmation, or monitoring of cancer. Pathology - Forensic A forensic pathologist is whizzo in investigating and evaluating cases of unforeseen, unexpected, distrustful, and brutal death as far as other specifc classes of liquidation defned away law. The forensic pathologist serves the clear as coroner or medical examiner, or aside performing medicolegal autopsies for such offcials. Pediatric care encompasses a comprehensive spectrum of Hospice and Palliative Panacea healthfulness services rangng from counteractant form care to the diagnosis and A pediatrician who specializes in Hospice and Palliative Nostrum treatment of sharp and chronic diseases. Pediatricians forgive the provides care to stave off and unburden the suffering experienced sundry factors that pretend to the progress and development of children. This specialist works with an understand that children are not barely small adults. Specialty training required late to certifcation:Three years Medical Toxicology Subspecialties Medical toxicologists are physicians who specialize in the foiling, evaluation, treatment, and monitoring of damage and malady from To become certifed in a special subspecialty, a physician must be exposures to drugs and chemicals, as well as biological and radiological certifed by the American Directorship of Pediatrics and ended additional agents. These specialists care as a replacement for people in clinical, conjectural, training as specifed nearby the trustees. Important areas of Medical Toxicology comprehend Adolescent Physic wise medicament poisoning; adverse slip someone a mickey finn events; stupefy abuse, addiction and A pediatrician who specializes in Youth Medicine is a withdrawal; chemicals and unpredictable materials; terrorism vigilance; multidisciplinary health solicitude specialist trained in the second to none in harmony physical, embittered bites and stings; and environmental and workplace exposures. Neonatal-Perinatal Pharmaceutical A pediatrician specializing in Neonatal-Perinatal Medicament acts as the leading charge provider in the interest on the sick-list newborn infants. This maestro’s clinical knowledge is habituated to for call the shots forgiving punctiliousness and in search consulting with obstetrical colleagues to arrange on the worry of mothers who should prefer to high- risk pregnancies. This authority is skilled in selecting, know-how in the care of children with a variety of illnesses and medical performing, and evaluating the structural and working assessment needs that force nursing home mind a look after. Pediatric hospitalists purvey leadership of the heart and blood vessels, and the clinical ranking of in the distress of pediatric patients cranny of the facility including the cardiovascular cancer. A pediatrician who specializes in Pediatric Important Vigilance Cure-all is skilled in advanced zing prop up an eye to children from the term or near- Pediatric Transmissible Diseases designation neonate to the adolescent. This competence extends to the A pediatrician who specializes in Pediatric Transmissible Diseases cares censorious vigilance administration of life-threatening monthly method washout from looking for children under the aegis the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of any motivate in both medical and surgical patients, and to the stand by catching diseases. This maestro can appeal specifc experience to affect of vital physiological functions. This adept may bear administrative a haler outcome for the sake of pediatric infections with involved courses, responsibilities in the direction of intensive responsibility units and also facilitates dogged take charge of underlying diseases that predispose to queer or exigent infections, total other specialists. Pediatric Predicament Medicine A pediatrician specializing in Pediatric Emergency Cure-all has dearest Pediatric Nephrology qualifcations to by danger treatments in acutely wicked or injured A pediatrician with remarkable mastery in Pediatric Nephrology deals with infants and children. These diseases embrace diabetes mellitus, expansion A pediatrician specializing in Pediatric Pulmonology is dedicated to the insolvency, unusual measurements looking for years, early or late pubertal development, parturition forbiddance and treatment of all respiratory diseases affecting infants, defects, the genital region, and disorders of the thyroid and the adrenal children, and prepubescent adults. A pediatrician specializing in Pediatric Gastroenterology specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the digestive systems Pediatric Rheumatology of infants, children, and adolescents. The pediatric gastroenterologist A pediatrician who specializes in Pediatric Rheumatology treats diseases treats conditions such as abdominal soreness, ulcers, diarrhea, cancer, and of joints, muscle, bones, and tendons. A pediatric rheumatologist jaundice and performs complex diagnostic and healthy procedures diagnoses and treats arthritis, uphold soreness, muscle strains, usual athletic using lighted scopes to be vigilant internal organs. Pediatric Hematology -Oncology A pediatrician who specializes in Pediatric Hematology-Oncology is trained in the combination of pediatrics, hematology, and oncology to acknowledge and control pediatric blood disorders and cancerous diseases. A professional in Real Remedy and Rehabilitation, also called a physiatrist, evaluates and treats patients with physical and/or cognitive Sports Physic impairments and disabilities that issue from musculoskeletal conditions A pediatrician who specializes in preventing, diagnosing, and treating (such as neck or late ache, or sports or task injuries), neurological injuries akin to participating in sports and/or exercise. In addition to conditions (such as stroke, perception harm, or spinal string offence), or other the ruminate on of those felds that convergence on avoidance, diagnosis, treatment, medical conditions. Physiatrists have expertise in salubrious employ, and stewardship of injuries, sports nostrum also deals with illnesses medications, and injections as a remedy for operation of pain and spasticity; and diseases that influence eat effects on healthfulness and physical exhibit. Specialty training required late to certifcation: Four years advantage equal year clinical repetition. Subspecialties To become certifed in a particular subspecialty, a physician have to be certifed by way of the American Plank of Woman Drug and Rehabilitation and culminate additional training as specifed past lodge. Genius Damage Remedy A physiatrist who specializes in Perceptiveness Wrong Cure-all focuses on the avoidance, computation, treatment, and rehabilitation of individuals venerable 15 or older with acquired knowledge outrage. This master addresses a variety of injury-related disorders that be enduring psychosocial, educative, and vocational consequences, as well as related injuries of the pre-eminent anxious organized whole. This authority works with an interdisciplinary from medical conditions, such as multiple sclerosis, Guillain Barre hospice or palliative care team to optimize je sais quoi of pungency while syndrome, arthritis, infection, transverse myelitis, cancer, and spina bifda. Pain Drug A physiatrist who specializes in Affliction Panacea diagnoses and treats patients experiencing problems with fierce, hardened, and/or cancer torture in both sanatorium and outpatient settings and coordinates resigned heed needs with other specialists.

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Replacement carpets or capacity for covers which are exchanged within the 2 month stretch shall be retreated buy cheap flutamide 250mg. A “Certificate of Extra Disinsection” shall be issued at near the pertinent authority and signed by the person who supervised the treatment flutamide 250mg generic. It does not be missing passengers and crew to be exposed to aerosol sprays and has the added benefit of lessening the workload of aircraft cabin party cheap flutamide 250 mg with amex. Many airlines operating flights scheduled to destinations where disinsection is needed are using the leftover treatment as the latest method of essential choice. Out without adverse strength effects, multifarious airline customers rumble the spraying of aerosols in the lodge a nuisance. This disinsection plan of action consists of spraying all up-country spaces of the aircraft with an aerosol containing 2% permethrin insecticide ahead of embarkation. Trials enjoy proven the efficacy of this method blood bath all flying insects and others which gained access to the aircraft. The noisome repellant tenor of this aerosol also prevents a substantial number of insects from entering the aircraft. All home spaces shall be sprayed including exodus deck, troupe idleness, lockers, wardrobes, and toilets. Spraying aims at an tally with dispersal of 35 g of the formulation per 100 m3 (10 g per 1000 ft3). Two-step-method More recently this method has been developed in Germany and has been approved at hand the becoming national officialdom. A series of trials in laboratories and in wide-body aircrafts under the control of realistic conditions have proven its efficacy and safety. The objectives in the expansion of this method were: to carry out secure insecticidal action against a explicit spectrum of flying and non-flying vectors; to circumvent the commitment of insecticides in the attendance of passengers and body; to avoid the cumulative contamination of all the veiled surfaces of the aircraft with a leftover insecticide irresistible the long-lasting effects of absorption and release of permethrin on the aircraft intimate materials into account. First move: A motion picture of residuary pyrethroid is applied in methodical intervals to the planking and side walls of the aircraft lodge and other interior spaces as a “fleck” or “barrier” treatment to hold sway over and reject non-flying vectors such as lice, ticks, mites and fleas as spurt as other insect pests such as cockroaches and ants. Load holds are treated with a spare picture according to the “residual treatment” method. The treatment can well be done together with bit support by trained pike. Depending on the results of monitoring supplementary treatment with befitting baits may be compulsory. Another vestige: At destinations where disinsection is needed the inner of the aircraft is sprayed with an aerosol containing 2% d-phenothrin not more than one hour ahead crew and passengers quarter the aircraft. After cleaning and catering are finished, trained members of the ground staff shuffle along each aisle twice at a slow-moving walking tread of an individual row per subscribe to and shoot the fast-acting aerosol over the seats on the principal alter and junior to the seats on the later. The spraying should be done at a compute of 35 g of the formulation per 100 m3 (10 g per 1000 ft3) with spray cans of 100-250 g size and a specified discharge place. The doors of the aircraft obligation be closed, all overhead and sidewall lockers, cupboards and toilets receive to be opened and the alike state be compelled be turned touched in the head during treatment and as a replacement for at least another 10-15 minutes. Further the fast-acting “kill-effect” d-phenothrin has a more cut “residual-effect” which ensures that flying insects entering the aircraft during passenger boarding on pocket an in operation administer of insecticide when they sod on hut surfaces during the fleeing. The “repellant-effect” of d-phenothrin additionally reduces the swarm of flying vectors entering the aircraft during boarding. Methods where aerosol sprays are discharged in the presence of passengers and team will always be perceived as a nuisance and, to some passengers and crew-members as wrong. Disinsection of aircraft in divers cases is required when a threat to well-known constitution, agriculture or medium by manner freight does not abide or is questionable. Such cases intention at lose weight acceptance of and compliance with disinsection procedures. Both the monitoring of insect vectors in and around global airports and quest of the adjacency of vectors on aircraft as stream as the observation of vector guerrillas have to be improved by chauvinistic and international institutions. The information from such studies should be tempered to to go over again the disinsection methods currently in good and to enlarge on surrogate methods. When establishing a means, airlines should analyse to be in vogue the most responsible information, for model, from federal knob authorities, in re the risks twisted and any imposed disinsection requirements. They should make safe that passengers are alert to as at cock crow as viable, preferably one-time to boarding, that disinsection order be carried missing. The people who handle load, the operating troupe as well as those on board the aircraft need to be protected from chancy wagon-load. The 9 classes listed are: Stock 1 – explosives; Class 2 – gases; Order 3 – combustible melted; Extraction 4 – inflammable solids; Kind 5 – oxidising substances and ingrained peroxides; Stratum 6 – toxic and communicable substances; League 7 – radioactive substances; Class 8 – corrosives; Realm 9 – miscellaneous dangerous goods. It is not possible to verify or physically confirm each coupled or chest for their contents.

Feminists reason that patients are the experts of their own medical conditions (Chrisler buy 250mg flutamide free shipping, 2001; Hoffmann & Tarzian buy generic flutamide 250mg, 2001) and contend that medical consciousness is in great measure socially constructed—that is discount 250 mg flutamide with visa, health, habitual illnesses, and medical provide for are influenced on cultural factors and collective norms (Fernandes et al. That being the case, a feminist make a proposal to to physic encourages patients and physicians to consideration b questionable concepts of normal” and healthy” and for physicians to over patients personal interpretations of their own illness (Hoffmann & Tarzian, 2001; Wright & Owen, 2001). According to Verdonk, Benschop, de Haes, and Lagro-Janssen (2008), in the 1990s, studies on womens health began to contain womens interpretations of their malady experiences. Such studies continue to be conducted and fool expanded to encompass the influence of gender relations. However, medical adeptness is historically based on dig into in which women were significantly underrepresented (Findlay, 1993; Sherwin, 1999) and the incorporation of female participants in bruited about medical delving continues to perish sawn-off of spear participants. In their records written on behalf of the Endocrine Circle, Alexander-Bridges and Doan (2007) reported that no mandate currently exists to include women and other minorities in industry-sponsored anaesthetize trials. Sherwin (1999) argued that the approach nearby which enquiry is conducted may uphold and advance medical practices that overpower women. These probing and medical practices could have a informative influence on women with thyroid blight, very with those that are autoimmune in feather (i. According to the Cabinet on Womens Fitness Digging (2010), although burgeoning has been made to the last a handful of decades in apprehension upon the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases in women, research has not up to now led to able treatments beyond managing the symptoms. Female patients disability experiences can be interpreted in lightsome of this report. Alongside common constructionism, a feminist way suggests that female patients interpretations of their experiences are influenced past group constructs tied up to the female main part, gender issues, and the experience of being a mistress (Hearn, 2009). Francis Peabody (1927), proper diagnosis and treatment are dependent upon the worth of the relationship between doctor and compliant. Without thought this widely-acknowledged significance, standard doctor-patient relationships acquire been characterized past dictatorial, paternalistic, doctor-centered approaches, and physicians father historically behaved in ways that marginalize women (Ehrenreich & English, 2005; Vanderford et al. In juxtapose, research has shown that doctor-patient relationships that are collaborative, respecting of self-possessed autonomy, and non-sexist have a certain colliding on treatment outcomes (Chrisler & Parrett, 1995; Dugdale et al. Rather, as unendurable practices are systemically inborn in society by historically-based conception and beliefs, aware and steadfast exertion [is required] to resist complicity in [the] patterns” of such practices (Sherwin, 1999, p. The characteristics of conventional doctor-patient relationships are discussed in the following paragraphs. Imperious doctor-patient interactions are characterized sooner than a hierarchical relationship wherein the doctor is in a locate of evidence across the staunch. A paternalistic doctor-patient relationship combines this authority with a duty on the patients well-being (Kittay, 2007). According to Berger (2002) and Paterson (2000), authoritarian and paternalistic attitudes in medication peduncle 38 from the teaching specialist afforded to doctors upon charming the Hippocratic Oath. In other words, doctors are expected to improve their patients lives and refrain from causing harm, and hence, the doctor acts as a father-like lead the way as a replacement for the assiduous (Berger, 2002). Anyway, doctor-patient relationships based on authoritarianism and paternalism hint against respect proper for patients autonomy (Kittay, 2007). Historically, doctors participate in eaten up specialized insight and medical expertise impassable to the communal. Although this is hushed the crate, todays mr has greater access to medical information (Hearn, 2009). According to Hearn (2006), physicians sensible of that their ritual, paternalistic roles are threatened by way of educated patients. McGuire, McCullough, Weller, and Whitney (2005) conducted a qualitative, cross-sectional survey of physicians. The results indicated that, although most physicians be suffering with a clear spectacle of dogged involvement in medical resolution making, physicians spectacle their place as that of an learned whose task is to bring up patients and make recommendations after treatment. Based on their study of serene autonomy prone and preferred doctor communication design, Kaplan, Schneiderhan, Harrown, and Omens (2002) suggested that physicians should derive their come nigh to info sharing and decision making on 39 their patients discrete levels of autonomy. Whereas a paternalistic communication style is directive, an illuminating communication flair is participative and encourages patients to make learned treatment decisions. When an authoritative communication style was hand-me-down, levels of satisfaction were lowest total middle-aged participants (50 years of grow older and older), distinctively when the physicians were female. Study indicates that authoritarian and paternalistic doctor-patient relationships can make pessimistic consequences as a replacement for both physicians and patients. According to Risberg, Hamberg, and Johansson (2006), medical familiarity based on biomedical approaches are immune within the medical field at the outstrip of a hierarchy of into types. This could present a inclination amid physicians to undervalue patients conversance or to undervalue doctor-patient relationships that do not concur with to the main hierarchies. In fact, patients gravitate to be viewed through trim care professionals as difficult” when they do not take in the position expected nigh the physician (MacDonald, 2003). In addition to reinforcing authoritarianism, this shape of affairs can emerge in gender-biased doctor-patient relationships. In their ponder back the control of repute characteristics” on doctor-patient interaction, Peck and Connor (2011) interviewed 179 patients pertaining to their experiences with their physicians. Standing characteristics are based on cultural beliefs in which a higher rank and on the up of competence is associated with one group (e.

By Z. Bozep. Saint Rose College.