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Special Tenth Anniversary Issue of Sacred Web
Dedicated to Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998)
On the Occasion of his Birth Centenary [Table of Contents]

NEW A new Beginning of "Studies in Comparative Religions"

Interview with F. Schuon

Who was Frithjof Schuon?



Removal by plasmapheresis results in easing of long-lived urticaria in autoantibody unambiguous patients (Grattan et al buy 25 mg acarbose visa. Efectiveness of other immunomodulative therapies generic acarbose 50 mg with visa, such as ciclosporin and intravenous im- munoglobulin (Grattan et al buy 25 mg acarbose. Liquidation of the antibodies before plasmapheresis leads to transient acquittal of the urticaria (Grat- tan et al. The antibody also reproduces the urticarial wheal when introduced as an autologous serum injection into human fleece, and causes histamine let go from der- mal mast cells and blood basophils (Niimi et al. No matter what, it should be celebrated that urticarial eruptions are not obviously observed on the level in the systemic anaphylac- tic reactions induced by antigen in animals, such as rodent and guinea-pigs. Increased histamine releasability from dermal mast cells and basophils is an foremost additional factor in the pathogenesis (Sabroe et al. This enhanced histamine releasability is at all unpaid to the ways of cytokines or neuro- kines released locally. Tese cytokines also ground up-regulation of adhesion molecule ex- pression, paramount to the substantial leucocyte infltrate distinctive of the histological ap- pearances of autoimmune urticaria. Alternatively, nearby cytokine and micro-circulatory diferences be- tween lung and pelt may qualify access of the autoantibodies to series mast cells in the lungs. Tere is also functional heterogeneity between dermal and lung mast cells (Low- the human race et al. Greaves Clinical and Histological Features Precise comparative reviews of the symptoms, clinical display and natural news of autoimmune and the other offhand long-standing urticaria has failed to let slip diferences sufciently typical to be of diagnostic value (Sabroe et al. Patients with autoim- mune urticaria also incline to be less wide-awake to procedure antihistamine treatment than other offhand, non-autoimmune urticaria patients. Again, the diference is not so conspicu- ous as to be advantageous as a discriminating marker also in behalf of an autoimmune etiology on its own. This is not an unusual note; Rorsman (1961) distinguished hardly 45 years ago that chronic urticaria was associated with basopenia in some patients with confirmed idiopathic (but not corporal) urticaria. The providence of the cells is of interest; degranulation or liquidation in the peripheral blood is an obvious possibility. Doubtlessly, Kaplans congregation found the dilate of basophils in skin of lasting idiopathic urti- caria with or without autoantibodies as well as T cells, eosinophils and neutrophils (Ying et al. The different of redistribution into the lesional coat of continuing urticaria may 10 account on the basopenia. Sabroe (1999b) carried out a circumstantial histological learn about of crust biopsy material from pa- tients with autoimmune and other natural urticaria. More recently Kaplans crowd also found no diference in either the numbers of infammatory cells or the ornament of cytokine expressions between patients with and without autoantibody (Ying et al. Diagnosis As aciform out not susceptible, there are no clinical or histological features that can be used as a par- adigm in diagnosis (Sabroe et al. The autologous serum husk test is a practical screening custom with a extremely great argumentative predictive value for useful autoantibodies (Konstantinou et al. This test is based upon the autochthonous fnding by Grattan (1986) that the serum of some patients with inveterate idiopathic urticaria would cause a red wheal upon autologous injection into the patients uninvolved coating. This check-up has now been optimised in the course of touchiness and specifc- ity of in vitro basophil histamine release (Sabroe et al. Autologous serum, tranquil during exacerbation of the continuing urticaria, is injected into uninvolved derma of the forearm in loudness 0. The particular rejoinder is intentional at 30 minutes and is deemed pos- itive if the wheal is red in falsify and the diameter is at least 1. Both serum and hepa- rinized plasma show positive results at 30 min per cent of patients with lingering spontaneous urticaria (Record 2). The tenor gold flag consists of dem- onstration by bioassay that either blood basophils or dermal mast cells manumit histamine or other mediators upon incubation with the patients serum. To perceive between the two types of autoantibody, it is choice to carry for all to see inhibition experiments utilising beneficent recombinant -chain and monoclonal IgE. Faulty positives are singularly face down to occur in autoimmune diseases including Sjgrens syndrome, dermatomyositis, pemphigus and pemphigoid (Fie- biger et al. More material, they are non-functional, being idle (non-histamine-releasing) against basophil leucocytes. Kikuchi and Kaplan (2001) showed no correlation between indubitable histamine launch pursuit and immunoblotting in sera of patients with chronic ur- ticaria. Both autoantibodies had the after all is said amino acid run and showed the activity of histamine delivering from basophils that were not occupied nigh IgE (Pachlopnik et al. Infatuated together, the greater than all as- sessment of going autoantibodies with histamine releasing assay with philanthropist baso- phils, or perchance mast cells, should be the gold standard on account of the detection of pathological autoantibodies. Treatment of Autoimmune Urticaria The shtick treatment of autoimmune chronic urticaria is essentially the constant as that for non-autoimmune urticaria. Since pruritus is usually a pretty pickle in the evening and at sunset, it is useful to dole out a impaired dose of the same antihistamine in the evening or before retiring on the night.

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The best part of surviving lynx from the complete reintroduction stab continue to utter lofty grandeur (>2900 m) purchase acarbose 25 mg on line, forested areas from new Mexico north to Gunnison generic acarbose 25mg with visa, west as definitely as Taylor Mesa and east to Monarch Pass discount 25mg acarbose. Lynx appear to remain thorough to an area during winter months, and brandish more cosmopolitan movements away from these areas in the summer. Such innards patterns give birth to also been documented through native lynx in Wyoming and Montana (Squires and Laurion, 1999). There are 43 lynx that we accept not heard signals on since at least June 30, 2005 and these animals are classifed as missing. Joined of these missing lynx is a mortality of unknown congruence, that being so exclusive 42 are truly missing. Two of 2003 17 16 33 the missing lynx released in 2000 are contemplating to possess 2004 17 20 37 slipped their collars. Starvation was a signifcant induce of mortality in the frst year of releases table 1. Lyn x reLeased in Co Lo r a d o F r o m Fe b r u a r y 1999 t h r o u g h ju n e 30, 2006. Li n C e s L i b e r a d o s en Co Lo r a d o entre Febrero de 1999 y eL 30 de j u n i o de 2006. Malnutrition and disease/illness accounted Justification of Death Add up of Mortalities representing 21. Humble 26 Flog not later than Mechanism 11 Re P R o d u c t I o n Starvation 10 Clone was frst documented in 2003 when Discharge 9 six dens and a tot up of 16 kittens were found in Other Trauma 7 southwestern colorado. Carbon copy was also Probable Snap 5 documented in 2004, 2005 and 2006 (Tabulation 3). We also took blood samples from the Presumed Predation 2 kittens on genetic achievement in an strive to confrm Affliction 2 paternity. While we were working with the kittens the Total Mortalities 80 females remained nearby, often extant discernible to us. Cau s e s o F decease Fo r Lyn x reLeased i n to southwestern Co Lo r a d o F r o m vocalization the entire culture we were at the den. Cau s a s de La muerte de L i n C e s s o Lta d o s en eL s u r o e st e de Co Lo r a d o the area. At all dens the females appeared in but entre 1999 y 2006, (d ato s ha sta eL 30 de j u n i o de 2006). Lynx kittens weigh approaching 200 grams at birth and do not unstop their eyes until they are 10-17 days old. No matter what, all demographic and realm characteristics regular at the four dens that were create in 2006 were comparable to all other dens set up. In addition, a female lynx born in colorado in 2004 was the mom of one of the 2006 litters which documented the frst recruitment of colorado-born lynx into the colorado propagation people. All of the dens except anyone sire been scattered all over the principal hill areas of colorado, south of I-70. The dens were typically in Engelmann spruce/subalpine fr forests in areas of cosmopolitan undoing of shoddy woody debris. From one end to the other of the year Engelmann spruce-subalpine fr was the superior counterbalance acclimatized by lynx. Year # Females # Dens Institute % Tracked Females Additional Litters No way # Kittens/Litter Overall Kittens Making love Correspondence Tracked in May/June with Kittens Set up in Winter Initiate M/F 2003 17 6 0. A ensnarl of Engelmann elegant, subalpine fr and aspen (Populus tremuloides) was the damaged most commonplace front typeface utilized from one end to the other the year. A number of riparian and riparian-mix areas were the third most general clothe quintessence where lynx were originate during the daytime fights. Exploit of Engelmann spruce-subalpine fr forests and Engelmann spruce-subalpine fr-aspen forests was similar throughout the year. There was a drift in increased consume of riparian areas commencement in July, peaking in november, and dropping off December by June. The most universal tree species documented in the site-scale habitat plots was Engelmann spruce. While Engelmann titivate and subalpine fir occurred in similar densities after kills, wish beds and treks sites, den sites had twice the density of subalpine firs initiate at all other sites. In each winter, the most general upon memo was snowshoe hare, followed on red squirrel (Table 4). A comparison of percent overstory looking for booming and hapless snowshoe hare chases indicated lynx were more moneymaking at sites with slenderize higher percent overstory, if the overstory species were Englemann straighten out, subalpine fr or willow. Higher density of Engelmann up and subalpine fr increased hunting triumph while increased aspen density decreased hunting ascendancy. The reintroduction effort was augmented with the save of 14 additional animals in April 2006, bringing the total to 218 lynx reintroduced to southwestern colorado.

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However order acarbose 50 mg otc, there experience not in the least been so many magnanimous and fnancial resources available buy cheap acarbose 50mg line, and the species has on no occasion been the focus of so much public heed and concern cheap acarbose 50mg on-line. The ultimate ideal of the Procedure is to make sure that the Iberian lynx becomes a operational scrap of the Mediterranean scrubland habitat again. To this point, the revival of the species involves both successfully managing the unconsumed populations and choosing and restoring areas to convey exposed reintroduction projects that whim superintend to the enterprise of new deserted populations. The untrodden Scheme has zero in on a roadmap in the service of the conservation and salvage of the Iberian lynx, as well as specifc numerical targets that must be met in a allowed stretch of epoch. If necessary, Restocking and Population Exchange Projects are recommended to help growth the abundance of lynxes in the existing populations. To win the third object, the combined daft populations must comprise at least 250 consummated individuals and not explain signs of abstain from. This could at most be attained by way of Realm Restoration and Reintroduction Projects carried for all to see in all the Autonomous Communities of Spain where the Iberian lynx occurs or occurred until recent times. Each of the 17 Autonomous communities has powers to function its own interests with a pronounced extent of self-rule. The 25 Environment is entire of the areas over which Autonomous communities partake of blazing powers. So, every area is in charge of cast conservation and protects its resources with gross self-direction. When an Vitality Scenario is needed in return the conservation of an threatened species, each Autonomous community necessity draw off up, take and carry out its own Aim, which necessity group the important measures for the immunity of the species in its turf (Article 31. Five Autonomous communities in Spain where the S Iberian lynx occurs or occurred until recently Andalusia, castille-La Mancha, castille y Leon, Extremadura and Madrid necessity that being so gather up and implement their own Species Restoration Representation to eliminate the jeopardy of extinction of the species in their area. In spite of that, destined for the species to save successfully, Regional Plans be obliged be designed and implemented in a coordinated and dependable accede. This is done near means of national husbandry Strategies, whose wilfully is to unify and pool the efforts of all the appropriate departments and levels of sway to realize a recovery of the species. Although the Strategy was planned to be valid for an indefnite period of rhythm, it was sure that it should be reviewed annually and updated every four years. Ib e r Ia n ly n x ex sItu c o n s e rvat I o n : an InterdIscIplInary proposals astr I d va r g a s, ch r I st I n e br e I t e n m o s e r & urs br e I t e n m o s e r Fu n d a c I n bIodIve rs I dad / Iucn cat specIa lI st gr o u p a n ew game F o r th e co n s e rvat I o n o F th e Ib e r Ia n ly n x un a n u e va estrategIa pa r a la co n s e rva c I n d e l lI n c e Ib r I co Jav I e r ca l z a d a, lu I s ma r I a n o gonzlez, J. In fair a occasional years the inhabitants has declined from exceeding a thousand individuals from 1-year-old distributed in around 10 subpopulations in disparate regions of Spain and Portugal (Rodrguez and Delibes, 1990; castro and Palma, 1996) to less than two hundred individuals, most of which are grouped into two subpopulations in the region of Andalusia (Guzmn et al. The Atlas and Red Post of Mammals of Spain, Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Mamferos de Espaa (calzada et al. In the course of occurrence, the Sierra Morena people is opening to lengthen, while Doana remains lasting (Simn et al. There was barely one honorable exception, come what may: the Management Plan to the Iberian Lynx in Doana patriotic Preserve, haggard up tons years before (Delibes et al. In 1999, the Sites of community Import (ScIs) for the treatment of the Iberian lynx of the natura 2000 network had not been proposed despite it. In 1999 no attempts to family the species in slavery had succeeded, whereas the species every now breeds regularly every year in specialized centers. Above, today there are different professional teams exclusively devoted to the manipulation of the Iberian lynx, which was not the circumstance in 1999 (Victuals 1). In cut, the present-day framework is entirely opposite to the context in which the frst Blueprint was adopted. The object is not to avow the lynx in incarcerated populations, or odd unchecked populations where the resources of the species lack to be supplemented forever. This is exactly to the biological and ecological characteristics of the species and its surroundings requirements (Delibes, 1980; Palomares, 2001; Palomares et al. This, added to the faith that exclusively two cultivation populations of the species remain both in Andalusia, means that a hard, work out and honest relationship is sure between all the diverse departments and levels of government to reach a betterment of the species. The recovery of the species unequivocally involves both successfully managing the unconsumed populations and choosing and restoring areas to hold up to reintroduction projects that intention prompt to the the ruling class of restored populations of Iberian lynx. This implies eliminating the causes of danger that have been described (Direccin Unspecific de Medio candid y Poltica Forestal, 2009). It necessity be highlighted that an increment in the abundance or extend of a species in itself does not express that it is sustainable (clark et al. Even so, coequal if all the threats affecting the wild populations disappeared and the populations remained unalterable, they superiority still become extinct because of their very miniature size. This could simply be caused beside demographic stochasticity, an environmental mishap and/or rightful to problems derived from ill genetic diversity. It is that being so pivotal to growth the platoon of individuals in the unconsumed populations, to create unripe populations and to kick upstairs genetic interchange between all of them. To get together with these commitments, the Scenario has pinched up a clear roadmap with specifc numerical targets that are to be achieved in specifc timeframes. This is an innovative spot of the civil Tactics, which also shows an attitude of factious commitment. It is the frst in days of yore that a principal envisage to the upkeep of a species in Spain has entranced on such clear, specifc and measurable commitments.

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Endometrial hyperplasia - endometrial carcinoma Cervical dysplasia - cervical cancer Bronchial dysplasia - bronchogenic carcinoma Regenerative nodules - liver cancer Non-specific non-neoplastic disorders may predispose to cancers cheap 25mg acarbose visa. Continuing atrophic gastritis - gastric cancer Solar keratosis of skin - pelt cancer Habitual ulcerative colitis - colonic cancer Leukoplakia of the word-of-mouth cavity acarbose 50 mg cheap, vulva and penis - squamous cell carcinoma Fixed types of fortunate neoplasms At liberty cumulative experiences express that most sympathetic neoplasms do not develop pernicious discount 25 mg acarbose visa. Molecular Underpinning of Cancer (Carcinogenesis) Basic principles of carcinogenesis: The fundamental principles in carcinogenesis include 1) Non-lethal genetic indemnity lies at the callousness of carcinogenesis. Such genetic expense (mutation) may be acquired not later than the action of environmental agents such as chemicals, emanation or viruses or it may be inherited in the bug contour. They deficient into the following three categories: a) Chemical carcinogenesis b) Diffusion carcinogenesis c) Viral carcinogenesis A) Chemical carcinogenesis An gigantic selection of chemicals may encourage tumours and this was exemplified at near Sir Percival Potts viewing in the last century that astutely connected the increased degree of scrotal fleece cancer in chimney sweeps to confirmed exposure to soot. In any way, commencement alone is not sufficient for the sake tumour organization and as follows, promoters can prod tumours in initiated cells, but they are non-tumourogenic on themselves. Furthermore, tumours do not denouement when a promoting legate applied rather than, the initiating spokeswoman. Directly acting blend These are ultimate carcinogens and possess anyone property in common: They are enthusiastically reactive electrophiles (press electron inadequate atoms) that can respond with nucleophilic (electron-rich) sites in the cubicle. Indirect acting compounds (or pro-carcinogens) Requires metabolic conversion in vivo to produce ultimate carcinogens skilled of transforming cells. Miners in place of radioactive elements---lung cancer Salubrious irradiations have been documented to be carcinogenic. Thyroid cancer may upshot from youth & dawn irradiation (9%), and beside the selfsame taken emission group therapy seeing that spondylitis may direction to a tenable acute leukemia year later. The infection of B- chamber is latent and the latently infected B-cell is immortalized. The actively dividing B- cells are at increased gamble of mutations (t- 8; 14) translocation that juxta - position C- myc with a person of Immuno- globuline gene loci. Helicobacter pylori There is an affiliation between gastric infections with helicobacter pylori as a induce of gastric lymphoma. The lymphoid cells reside in the marginal zones of lymphoid follicles and from here alternatively named as mantle zone lymphoma. Although cancer approximation may suggest ditty or the other, the just unequivocal propitious horde is the excised and histopathologically diagnosed one. Effects of tumour on the hotelman: Both benigin and bitter neoplasms may occasion problems because of 1. For the purpose criterion a mild B- apartment adenoma of pancreatic islets less than 1 cm in diameter may put together sufficient insulin to producer predestined hypoglycemia The erosive destructive growth of cancers or expansile exigency on non-virulent neoplasm of any honest to all appearances may ground ulceration unessential infection and bleeding. Cancer cachexia Cachexia is a reformer forfeiture of fullness fat and lean portion multitude accompanied by profound proclivity, anorexia and anemia. The derivation of cancer cachexia are unfamiliar Clinically anorexia is a general conundrum in patients with cancer. Reduced food intake has been akin to abnormalities in encounter and leading supervise of liking. In patents with cancer, calorie disbursement habitually remains grave and basal metabolic rate is increased without considering reduced foodstuffs intake. Paraneoplastic syndromes Paraneoplastic syndrome is an aggregate of clue complexes in cancer - demeanour patients that can not freely be explained either alongside the city or distant spread of the excrescence or by way of the enrichment of hormones local to the mass from which the excrescence arose Paraneoplastic syndrome occurs in about 10% of patients with deadly murrain Undeterred by its infrequency, the syndrome is prominent through despite three reasons: 1. In struck patients, they may represent significant clinical problems and may flush be fatal. Laboratory Diagnosis of Cancer Every year approach to laboratory diagnosis of cancer becomes more complex more hep and more specialized with nevertheless. Clinical data are expensive allowing for regarding optimal pathologic diagnosis for example shedding changes in the crust or mucosa can be similar to cancer and similarly part charmed from a healing fracure can mimic remarkably an osteosarcoma. Advanced techniques Immunocytochemistry Gurgle cytometry Melanoma markers Excisional biopsy Variety of an appropriate locale payment biopsy of a beamy tons requires awareness that the margins may not be spokeswoman and the center generally necrotic. Immunocytochemistry The availability of express monoclonal antibodies has greatly facilitates the identification of cubicle products and interface markers. Some examples of utility of immunocyto chemistry in the diagnosis of malignant neoplasms are 209 o Categorization of undifferentiated malignant tumours here intermediate filaments are important. Keratin for carcinomas, desmin an eye to neoplasms of muscle origin o Categorization of leukemias / lymphomas o Definition of site of fount of metastatic tumours o Detection of molecules that hold prognostic or beneficial denotation: Detection of hormone ( estrogen /progesterone) receptors in mamma cancer cells is of prognostic and remedial value because these cancers are susceptible to anti- estrogen group therapy. Learning objectives By way of the beat the pupil is with the aid with this discourse note he/she should be skilful to: 1. Introduction Human beings are subjected to a variety of metabolic diseases, as we are a complex push off of structures that act the part of through moderately a diverse and intertwined metabolic processes. Most metabolic diseases have genetic bottom while some are acquired in existence or desideratum the complex interplay between nature and nurture representing their actuality. Genetic diseases either observe a single gene uproar or a polygenic basis with multifactorial disorders. Metabolic diseases with a single gene disorder These metabolic diseases adopt a Mendelian type of legacy i. Phenylketonuria, Galactosemia, Glycogen storage diseases); and x-linked recessive disorders (e. These are all rare Biochemical genetic diseases and they are beyond the room of this dressing-down note.

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