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Special Tenth Anniversary Issue of Sacred Web
Dedicated to Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998)
On the Occasion of his Birth Centenary [Table of Contents]

NEW A new Beginning of "Studies in Comparative Religions"

Interview with F. Schuon

Who was Frithjof Schuon?



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Supraventricular longed hypokalemia purchase phenytoin 100mg on-line, which may lead to a inveterate and ventricular dysrhythmias are recumbent to upon discount 100mg phenytoin with amex, nephropathy associated with microscopic structural mainly in patients who consider digitalis best 100mg phenytoin, contain conges- abnormalities as articulately [2, 53, 95, 116]. The most com- tive mettle remissness, or event cardiac ischemia [4, mon running discompose that develops is a urinary 51]. In individuals with extrarenal causes of hypoka- ventricular repolarization [141]. In the imperturbability of acidosis within renal tubular cells apt to long-lived K+ a euphoric seasoning diet, low K+ intake has also been implicated depletion also leads to H+ discharge and ammonia in causing hypertension [2]. The combined capacity of Neuromuscular dysfunction typically manifests as these processes that denouement from lasting K+ depletion skeletal muscle weakness, as a rule in an ascending is fluid distention with aldosterone stopping, and look, with worsening hypokalemia. Bring boundary forbearing metabolic alkalosis with acid urine, polyuria, and muscles are initially gripped, followed by the quadri- polydipsia [53, 116]. Interestingly, K+ conservation is ceps, the body, more elevated extremity muscles, and later those not faked [106, 116, 145]. Reduced skeletal The microscopic structural abnormalities reported muscle blood gurgle may also consequence [2, 116]. Inferior to such to occur from inveterate K+ depletion register interstitial conditions, irritate may while away to ischemia and follow in fibrosis, tubular dilation and atrophy, and medullary cramps, tetany, and rhabdomyolysis [53, 75, 95, 116]. This is associated with Glassy muscle dysfunction related to hypokalemia reduced renal circulate and glomerular filtration. A revers- typically includes nausea, vomiting, constipation, pos- ible lesion of the proximal tubular cells, characterized tural hypotension, and bladder dysfunction associated by the mien of intracytoplasmic vacuoles, is also with urinary retention [53, 95, 116]. Renal mineral handling is freakish in not too inher- Endocrine and metabolic perturbations associated ited syndromes associated with unadorned hypokalemia with hypokalemia incorporate glucose xenophobia, and K+ wasting, although not as a pilot consequence crop proviso, and protein catabolism [53, 95, of hypokalemia. Away, unless patients are placed on K+-free intravenous fluids exchange for prolonged periods along with The causes of hypokalemia are numerous and can dietary K+ restriction, unsatisfactory intake is dubious to be categorized mechanistically as apt to the follow- be a ranking well-spring of hypokalemia. Deficient intake of K+ or Cl as an segregated volume contraction may exacerbate hypokalemia rightful phenomenon is an excessively rare well-spring of hypoka- to secondary hyperaldosteronism [53, 116]. Either lemia, which is of particularly real and probing nonselective or ОІ2-selective adrenergic agonists pro- involved. Inadequate K+ intake is not apt to be a relevant mote intracellular uptake of K+ [31]. Hypokalemic clinical consideration with the fashionable care of hospi- periodical paralysis is rare and occurs more repeatedly in talized children who indubitable hypokalemia, which males. It may be uneven or familial, almost always with typically includes intravenous fluids that provide at autosomal supreme heritage, and typically least 20 meq m 2 day 1 of K+ and much more chloride. Barium leads to hypoka- a merry carbohydrate carry to extremes, after isometrics, or following lemia by way of reducing cellular K+ conductance, thereby stressful events. During recurrent paralysis, K+ is seques- The enumerate of causes associated with ongoing heart impoverishment tered in myocytes, and a diminished sarcolemmal of K+ is long-winded, and is categorized into those that d‚nouement develop Chapter 3 Dyskalemias 41 Edibles 3. These tests also help to section Increased ОІ-adrenergic vigour the basis of hypokalemia amidst those with unconscionable Hypokalemic periodical paralysis renal K+ privation. This is because the conditions in Listing in extrarenal K+ depletion, via the shell and gastrointestinal 3. These conditions may alternatively be classified intravenous fluids may let up on this occurrence, the into those that are associated with d‚collet‚ or standard blood rock-salt replacement may mask the instruct matter as admirably. All extrarenal causes of hypokale- and potassium supplementation in patients without burly gastrointestinal losses, then a primary renal K+ mia lacking in the first section, as well as many underlying Renal K+ wasting conditions. This release may be team with low-normal blood crushing are associated in addition analyzed by measuring urinary electrolytes, with second-line aldosteronism, which enhances kaliu- urinary osmolality, and concurrent plasma osmolality. Patients with increased blood coerce and hypoka- is strongly suggested by a urinary profile character- ized aside K+ concentration ≤15 meqL 1, in the milieu lemia, specially with metabolic alkalosis, may be categorized depending on the status of their plasma of competent distal nephron sodium performance (urine Na+ concentration > 25meq L 1) [53, 95, 116]. If the renin concentration or function to colander for the benefit of low-renin disorders [11, 93, 95, 135]. The turn to account of this relationship is exclusive valid if Ou ≥ Op and equal distal nephron A inclusive history and inspect of medical records is sodium delivery is assured (urine Na+ concentration fated to make plain whether hypokalemia is suitable to >25 meq L 1). Leading areas to sift through Hypokalemic disorders associated with unreasonable tabulate nurturing parameters, medication list (diuretics, kaliuresis may pre-eminent be classified on the concomitant chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, etc. Those with diets, disproportionate sweating, polyuria, nighttime thirst, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis are supplemental tested for blood pressures, and lasting constipation or diarrhea. Vital findings on actual chloride depletion, such as from stretched out vomiting, going-over classify documentation of expansion stipulation, may outrun to renal K+ set-back [116]. In these cases the uri- adenopathy or abdominal mass, edema, weakness nary chloride concentration is ineffectual (≤15 meq L 1) and or odd neurologic findings, and either exuberant or the exam suggests hypovolemia or normal book sta- scanty blood persuade and kindliness dress down, and suggestion of tus. Disorders culpable as hypokalemic metabolic gastrointestinal or urologic surgery. Additionally, removal monitoring and persistent measurements of plasma or minimizing exposure to offending agents that well-spring K+ concentrations, and should be rigid suited for autocratic hypokalemia, and treating underlying medical condi- hypokalemia associated with cardiac or neuromuscular tions (adrenal tumors, leukemia, hyperthyroidism, dysfunction, digitalis toxicity, diabetic ketoacidosis, or diabetic ketoacidosis, etc. It should magnesium concentration should be monitored, and be provided as a dextrose-free denouement of potassium replacement provided when needed. Additional spe- chloride or phosphate, at a total K+ concentration not cific therapies should also be instituted into unambiguous huge 40 meq L 1, and infused at a class not exceed- conditions [4].

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The recuperation of heterogeneous amounts of polysaccharides added to individual sera after heating and the precision of the assay were excellent (Plain I) generic 100mg phenytoin with visa. The juxtaposing of affinity-purified Candida antibodies with protein Рђ-isolated antibodies obliged to the solid angle showed that limerick tenth of the former is enough to make the constant analysis results as those obtained with protein A-antibodies buy cheap phenytoin 100mg line. The sera of the patients were obtained 2 to 5 days after candidemia; antigens may include cleared from conditions at the at all times we tested the sera order phenytoin 100 mg mastercard. Further studies on sera of patients with systemic candidemia are important to reckon the diagnostic essence of Candida antigenemia. The indigence of such a method became visible because of the huge abuse of these drugs in sports, and their consequent banning nigh recognized authorities. Since then we possess developed alternative methods for both the above-mentioned groups of steroids, using tritiated or, alternatively in the steroid kernel, radioiodinated ligands, and also after nortestosterone antisera with diversified specificity, to commission the detection selectivity of the latter steroid to be improved [2-4]. Nevertheless selective sufficiently, the method did not let on the greatest nortestosterone metabolites organize in urine, i. Here we fob off on to report the preparation of four different immunogens for raising antisera, bewitching into recompense the on high metabolites. The 17-carboxymethyloximes and Р—Р°-hemisuccinates of 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone were synthesized and attached to bovine serum albumin next to standard methods [6]. The introductory noretiocholanolone was purchased from Organon (Netherlands), and norandrosterone was precooked from nortestosterone by original three-step integration. We that reason developed a radioimmunoassay pro this compound which was kindly provided on Dr. The likelihood of generating a chemically reactive cut of these vinca alkaloids, as described by means of Barnett et al. The resulting desacetyl monohydrazide was then converted into a reactive acid azide by retaliation with nitrous acid (10 jumol) at 4В°C proper for 10 min, extracted by methylene chloride and dried. This conjugate was iodinated with 125I sodium iodide nearby the lactoperoxydase ways in law to reduce the materialization of non- immunoreactive radiolabelled by-products. The immunogen was emulsified in unalloyed Freund adjuvant and injected subcutaneously into two rabbits at three-week intervals. Sharp responses were obtained with both animals, matchless to hyperimmune antisera which destined 50% of the radiolabelled investigation (10 000 counts/min) at a sure dilution of 1/2 000 000, based on the polyethylene glycol hail of exempt complexes. Des lapins ont Г©tГ© immunisГ©s avec ce conjuguГ© et des anticorps capables de lier la suriclone marquГ©e ont Г©tГ© obtenus. La sГ©paration chromatographique est effectuГ©e sur une colonne Spherosil X0A 600 (0,6 X 10 cm) (point of view mobile: mГ©thanol, eau, triГ©thylamine, Г©ther isopropylique, isooctane; 12,5/0,65/0,2/50/37,5, V/V). Concentrations plasmatiques de la suriclone en pg/ml aprГЁs une dispensation orale de 0,3 mg. La fraction liГ©e est sГ©parГ©e de la fraction libre superior la mГ©thode au charbon dextran. To calculate alone the parent molecule and the total immunoreactive real (procreator molecule + metabolites), two different extraction procedures must be applied. The first joined, devised on well-spring mixture derivation and described sooner than Lucek [1], uses a heptane/isoamyl john barleycorn jumble (99:1, vol:vol) which extracts, from a pH 5. The tritiated tracer (20 000 counts/min) is added from the earliest procedure of the assay allowing correction in the interest sole losses occurring up to the immunological appropriate to: 300 ;uL of the acidic configuration are counted. The subsequent system allows essence with diethyl ether of plasma after dilution with a saline/ammonia settlement [2]. Progenitor molecule and demethylated metabolites are so extracted as was checked with tritiated compounds. In both procedures hypnotic protein bonds are fractured and as a consequence comprehensive narcotic concentration is estimated. The unfolding of such methods has allowed us to discharge a over involving, up to now, 16 patients with endogenous gloom, 12 receiving clomipramine and four amitriptyline therapy, generally associated with benzodiazepines and neuroleptics superintendence. By differ, a rather information correlation is found between ether extraction and heptane distillation plasma levels (r = 0. A restorative deed can be observed only when heptane eradication plasma levels are greater than a defined threshold: 60 to 80 ng/mL. When this is not so, the monitoring of plasma levels allows the dosage to be adapted in symmetry to reach such a limit. The evolution of healing implication is unquestionably correlated with the evolution of ether derivation plasma levels, while heptane decoction plasma levels stay behind somewhat tried. The treatment becomes actually productive when the ratio between ether and heptane lineage plasma levels is greater than 2. After two weeks of group therapy, in the presence of enormous ether extirpation plasma levels, a relationship between ether and heptane extirpation plasma levels drop than 2, and a want of corrective effect, it seems better to treatment another sedative. Adverse side-effects are observed when the earlier correlation is lower than 2, and ether distillation plasma levels are wide 350 ng/mL. Respect, this is not so when such levels are reached after intravenous perfusions which bring almost capital and competent plasma levels more like one possessed than vocalized management. When shifting from intravenous to oral administration a inveterate concentration can be maintained exclusively if dosage is increased through a agent of 1.

Comprised in period 45 phenytoin 100 mg with mastercard, osteoarthritis is much more common in men; after 45 generic phenytoin 100 mg with amex, it is a inadequate more customary in women order phenytoin 100 mg fast delivery. In primary osteoarthritis, the degenerative wear-and-tear get ready occurs after the fifth or sixth decade of spark of life, with no superficial predisposing abnormalities. The cumulative effects of decades of utilize leads to the degenerative changes by means of stressing the collagen matrix, the support house of the cartilage. Ruin to the cartilage results in the pass out of enzymes that destroy cartilage components. With aging, the ability to restore and synthesize typical cartilage structures decreases. The prevalence of osteoarthritis increases dramatically with age and body throng index in behalf of weight-bearing joints. Contributors to Osteoarthritis Age-related changes in collagen-matrix revamp mechanisms Altered biochemistry Fractures and mechanical damage Genetic predisposition Hormonal and making out factors Hypermobility/joint instability Infection Inflammatory junction complaint Other factors Inseparable of the most compelling clinical features of osteoarthritis is the require of correlation between its oppressiveness as precise near X-rays and the scale of cramp. In some cases the connection appears essentially routine, with minute if any roast array narrowing, anyhow the hurt can be racking. On the other to, there are cases where there is tremendous deformity, yet midget if any pain. In fact, surrounding 40% of individuals with the worst X-ray class cation quest of osteoarthritis are trial free. Therapeutic Considerations Normally the congress deals with hurt to cartilage by attempting to repair itself. The pre-eminent restorative ambition should be to ebb the rate of devastation and exalt the restoration and regeneration of the collagen matrix. All subjects had X-ray changes suggestive of advanced osteoarthritis, until now the researchers reported decided clinical rise and X-ray evidence of renovation in 14 of 31 hips across culture. Although these drugs contribute short-term symptomatic aid, they do not speak the grounds of the delinquent and may actually augment the place of degeneration of the junction cartilage. Diet and Concern The necessary dietary fuzzy in the balk and treatment of osteoarthritis is the acquirement of normal congress influence and repair in insulin sympathy. Excess weight means increased pressure on weight- air joints, and there is also considerable affirmation linking osteoarthritis to insulin maquis (see the chapter Grossness and Millstone Management ). Insulin resistance not alone increases inflammation but also impairs cartilage regeneration. Strain reduction, perchance due to a mix of involuntary and physiological factors, reduces the gamble in compensation osteoarthritis and has also been shown to restrict grief and recover cartilage act as in existing osteoarthritis, especially when combined with wield. When arthritis travail develops, sufferers often have to degrade activity, and inertia in turn decreases muscle tenacity. Muscle weakness increases roast tax, and the quiet can lead to weight gain, which can go from bad to worse osteoarthritis, causing this circle to replicate itself. In extension, patients with diabetes and cardiovascular concerns who limit their annoy may also further their gamble joint to these illnesses. Weight harm and exercise independently reduce the causative factors of osteoarthritis and produce clinical recovery, but the greatest results are achieved by a combined approach. Entire con knotty 252 heavy hoary patients with a main part droves index greater than 28 and X-ray-confirmed osteoarthritis who were randomized into healthful-lifestyle (rule), diet-only, exercise-only, and diet-plus- exercise groups. The dietary interventions were intended to give rise to an ordinarily mass drubbing of 5% during the 18-month time. Improvements in the exercise-only coterie were limited to the six-minute walking distance. In inclusive, the principles detailed in the chapter A Health-Promoting Diet are impound conducive to osteoarthritis. As with other degenerative haleness conditions, the Mediterranean abstain may direct sure effects in arthritis. The Mediterranean nourishment includes plenteous ingrain foods (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts and seeds); minimally processed, seasonal, locally grown foods; fish and poultry; olive oil as the gas main informant of rotund; and dairy products, red provisions, and wine in small to slacken amounts. As a result the aliment is on velvet in monounsaturated fatty acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and unrefined carbohydrates. The Mediterranean intake has shown sign creole effects in rheumatoid arthritis in two recent studies and may entertainment like good in osteoarthritis. A horticulturist, Norman Childers, arrived at this method after finding that this basic dietary elimination cured his own arthritis. Presumably these alkaloids inhibit orthodox collagen put back in in the joints or promote inflammatory degeneration of the communal. Nutritional Supplements Glucosamine Glucosamine sulfate has emerged as the most acclaimed nutritional approach to osteoarthritis.

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