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Special Tenth Anniversary Issue of Sacred Web
Dedicated to Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998)
On the Occasion of his Birth Centenary [Table of Contents]

NEW A new Beginning of "Studies in Comparative Religions"

Interview with F. Schuon

Who was Frithjof Schuon?



Z. Nefarius. Keene State College.

The anchoring twine of the neoepiglottis far 4 cm charming be attracted to not to drill is introduced under the aegis the transverse cut off and toe the rump membranous partition off is caught not later than the artery forceps placed in the of trachea olmesartan 10mg sale. In that case neoepiglottis cannot be oesophagus while the aide-de-camp gently pulls constructed buy olmesartan 10 mg cheap. The trachea is retracted anteriorly the oesophageal anchoring silks superiorly buy olmesartan 10mg otc, Tumours of the Larynx 371 laterally and anteriorly to stabilise the the neck with an adhesive strip. After 3 weeks anterior oesophageal obstruction in out of sequence to facili- the newspaper is removed by way of pulling on the plot. Two wedges are oesophagus is pushed downward consequently charming removed from the lateral uppermost weaken rim of along with it the neoepiglottis middle of the the trachea is closed 2-0 vicryl stitches. While tracheal lumen ends in a cul-de-sac at its indigent doing this device, the trachea is pushed close. The philosophical is assign on antibiotics and glottis, is closed nearby the anterior oesophageal metronidazole for 2 weeks. The walls are stitched to each other with 2-0 vicryl silastic lamination is removed after three weeks. A in arrangement to proscribe allied movements fenestrated supple or metal tracheostomy between the trachea and oesophagus. The tube, preferably with a speaking valve, is anchoring stitches and the forceps are inserted and the patient is asked to phonate removed. A rectangular silastic sheet (5 cm by closing the tracheostomy tube with his become 1. The phonetic steam, being neoepiglottis and the mucosa lined inferior obstructed sooner than the blue bloods bound of the cul-de-sac, perimeter of the transverse dividend, into the passes through the neoglottis into the oeso- oesophagus from the tracheal mien and liberal phagus and upwards to the pharynx in situ object of 3 weeks and anchored by a silk stitch and the spoken opening in behalf of articulation. In variety 1, the spinal acces- daring are removed en bloc with the unadulterated sory grit is preserved. The dissections are named American Ivory-tower Panel seeking head according to the lymph node group removed. Modified radical neck dissection resected in deep neck dissection and a given or 3. Neck Block Dissection of the Neck 373 dissection may be extended to carry away para- 3. When there is economical hope of tracheal, pre-tracheal and retropharyngeal controlling the fundamental tumour. Elementary lesion which cannot be removed Block dissection of the neck is indicated in the and controlled. In a patient of control and neck cancer with no conspicuous involvement of the neck nodes Various incisions toughened seeking balk dissection of but who is implausible to return benefit of follow- the neck are shown in Figure 67. The up and has a swelling with a known lofty structures that are preserved after a extremist frequency of neck node metastasis. Fortitude price: The spinal accessary sand is routinely sacrificed in primary neck 1. This leads to postoperative of the internal jugular stratum, subclavian trace consort with discharge and irritation in that sphere. The or carotid artery can be a sedate problem nerves which may be damaged during during the managing, while subcutaneous dissection are the upper-level laryngeal fearlessness, haematomas may form in the post- vagus, facial, lingual, hypoglossal and operative period. A chylous fistula may stamp apt to thora- rative laryngeal oedema in cases of cic duct injury. A lateral bud from the fourth pharyngeal upon of each side amal- Nodular Goitre gamates with it and completes the corresponding lateral lobe. The nodules even so circumscribed 376 Textbook of Attention, Nose and Throat Diseases Treatment Predisposed to thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice. Retrosternal Goitre This is mostly acquired though a scattering cases are congenital in origin. Substernal: There is a prolongation of a cervical goitre downwards behind the sternum. Intrathoracic: The fit thyroid is situated within the thorax between the exceptional veins and resting upon the aorta. Plunging goitre: The thyroid is % intrathoracic but from time to culture it is by way of feeble capsule, are laborious or impossible stiff into the neck via raised intrathora- to enucleate. In unfeeling endemic areas, about the era of 6 years, fro 20 per cent boys and 30 per cent girls bonus a obvious and palpable uncluttered, soft enlargement of the thyroid gland (Fig. It may regress or disappear in some while in others it becomes multinodular by 30 years of ripen. Adenomas Dessicated thyroid, 3 doses (200 mgm) circadian are most general in middle-aged females, causes regression or L-thyroxine is acclimated to. These are capsulated and the Thyroid cancer is uncommon and the most microscopic patterns comprehend follicular, common sense for it to present is as a lonesome microfollicular, hurthle room and embryonal. The female to virile relationship appropriate for malig- can found from any of the cellular nant tumours of thyroid gland is here 2. The mammoth preponderance, however stand up from patients and forwards calculation and subse- follicular cells, and other types are rare.

Other intrinsic The cords have stratified squamous epithe- muscles are supplied by the recurrent lium with no submucous layer buy olmesartan 10 mg without prescription. Interior of the Larynx The rima vestibuli and rima glottidis: The The laryngeal inlet is bounded above and in space between the two vestibular bands is front by the free margin of the epiglottis order 40 mg olmesartan, late- called rima vestibuli while the space between rally by the aryepiglottic folds generic 40mg olmesartan visa, and posteriorly the vocal cords is called rima glottidis. It lies between the inlet of larynx and the level of vestibular folds or false cords. Blood Supply of the Larynx It is bounded above by margins of the Larynx is supplied by the superior and infe- laryngeal inlet, in front by the posterior aspect rior thyroid arteries. The superior thyroid of the epiglottis, laterally by the inner aspect artery is a branch of the external carotid artery of the aryepiglottic fold, and posteriorly by while the inferior thyroid artery arises from the mucosa covering the anterior surface of the thyrocervical trunk of the subclavian the arytenoid cartilage. Sinus of the Larynx Lymphatic Drainage of the Larynx It is a small recess, the opening of which lies between the vocal cord and the ventricular The part of the larynx above the vocal cords fold. It secretes mucus and thus lubricates the is drained by lymphatics which proceed vocal cords. Glottis It consists of the vocal cords, anterior The part of the larynx below the vocal cords commissure, and posterior commissure. Posterior commissure is the area at the The vocal cords themselves are practically posterior end of the vocal cords, between the devoid of lymphatics. Subglottis It is the area of the larynx which Nerve Supply of the Larynx extends from 5 mm below the level of the vocal The superior laryngeal nerve is sensory to the cords up to the lower border of the cricoid laryngeal mucosa above the vocal cords. The undersurface of the cords is Besides it is motor to the cricothyroid muscle excluded. Mucosa Supraglottis It is the region of the larynx above of the larynx below the vocal cords and all the level of the vocal cords and includes the other intrinsic laryngeal muscles are supplied ventricles, vestibular bands and vestibule. Comparison of Infantile with the Average Measurements of Adult Larynx Adult Larynx 1. Size: The difference in size is not only real, Up to puberty the size of the larynx both in but also relative, for the lumen of infantile males and females is almost the same but larynx and trachea is smaller in proportion thereafter in males it increases nearly twice in to the body as a whole. The measure- choke is present in the subglottic region ments are given in Table 52. Consistency of the tissues of the larynx: In Length 44 mm 36 mm young children all the laryngeal tissues Transverse diameter 43 mm 41 mm Anterior diameter 36 mm 26 mm including the cartilaginous framework, musculature, and mucous and submucous tissues are softer than in adults. Surgical Subdivisions of the Larynx The cartilage is softer and more pliable For clinicosurgical purposes, the larynx has and the mucosa loose and less fibrous. Right superior lobe bronchus: It arises from border of the fourth cervical vertebra. At the right principal bronchus and is seven months it lies about the middle of divided into three segmental bronchi— the sixth vertebra and it is still found in apical, posterior, and anterior. Middle lobe bronchus: It arises from the descent occurs until in adult life it lies anterior aspect of the main bronchus, opposite the lower border of the sixth is directed forwards and downwards to cervical vertebra, while the top of the be divided into two segmental bronchi, epiglottis lies opposite the lower border of the lateral and medial. Right inferior lobe bronchus: The inferior As a result of the higher position of the lobe bronchus gives the following seg- larynx in infants, the entry of the air current mental bronchi—apical, medial basal, is straighter than in adults and the anterior basal, lateral basal, and poste- epiglottis less overhanging. Shape: The upper end of the larynx and trachea is funnel-shaped in infants, the The left main bronchus is longer, narrower cricoid plate being tilted backwards while and more horizontal. It divides into the the tracheal lumen becomes smaller as it following subdivisions. The trachea divides at the level of the upper The lingular bronchus which is a branch border of the fifth thoracic vertebra into two of the left superior lobe bronchus divides into: main bronchi separated by a projection of the (i) superior lingular, and (ii) inferior lingular lowest ring of trachea called carina. The left inferior lobe bronchus divides into Right Main Bronchus the following segmental bronchi: (i) apical The right main bronchus is wider, shorter and bronchus, (ii) anterior basal, (iii) lateral basal, more vertical than the left main bronchus. Larynx and Tracheobronchial Tree 313 There is no medial basal bronchus on the During inspiration the bronchial diameters left side. Absence of these movements on The successive divisions of the bronchial bronchoscopy denotes fixation of the bron- tree are termed principal bronchi, lobar chial wall by a neoplastic process. The bronchi, segmental bronchi, bronchioles and advantage of this widening on inspiration is terminal bronchioles. Respiratory passage: It is a part of the upper produced by vibration of vocal cords. Intratracheal high pressure column of air: This sphincter at the upper end of the respi- is produced by contraction of the ratory tract and closure of this sphincteric expiratory muscles in the thorax and the mechanism helps in following ways: abdominal wall. Reflex protection against entry of and made tense by contraction of the foreign bodies. Closure of the sphincter helps in The vibrating cords cut the expired column thoracic fixation and building of high of air into a series of puffs, causing a series intrathoracic pressure as required in of compression and rarefaction waves of straining, micturation, explosive air. This sphincteric action is Various explanations have been given to exerted at three different levels by the explain the vibration of cords. Reflex action: The larynx plays an impor- and enhanced by a resonating mechanism tant part in the cough reflex. It is a recep- provided by the lung tissues, pharynx, oral tive field for reflexes. Phonation: The larynx plays the main role resonating mechanism gives an individual in phonation and speech. The larynx moves up towards the base of the sphincteric mechanism of the larynx tongue and thus brings the pharyngo- comes into action and prevents the oesophageal junction nearer to the bolus.

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Poor oral hygiene is the most signal risk piece in the increment of periodontal infection (21) generic 20mg olmesartan free shipping. Dental caries manifest itself because of demineralization of enamel and dentine during organic acids formed sooner than bacteria in dental slab help of the anaerobic metabolism of sugars derived from the slim (24) generic olmesartan 10mg fast delivery. Elementary acids augment the solubility of calcium hydroxyapatite in the dental distressingly tissues and demineralization occurs discount olmesartan 10mg with mastercard. Saliva is super-saturated with calcium and phosphate at pH 7 which promotes remineralization. If the vocal pH remains towering tolerably for sufficient even so then complete remineralization of 108 enamel may strike. If the acid contest is too pronounced, in any case, demineralization dominates and the enamel becomes more pervious until done a carious lesion forms (25). The condition of caries requires the being of sugars and bacteria, but is influenced next to the susceptibility of the tooth, the bacterial a packet, and the amount and excellence of the saliva. Dietary sugars and dental caries There is a holdings of evidence from tons manifold types of investigation, including human studies, crude experiments and conjectural studies in vivo and in vitro to show the job of dietary sugars in the etiology of dental caries (21). Collectively, data from these studies provide an all-inclusive exact likeness of the cariogenic unrealized of carbohydrates. Sugars are undoubtedly the most prominent dietary particular in the maturation of dental caries. Here, the locution sugars' refers to all monosaccharides and disaccharides, while the term sugar' refers only to sucrose. The style delivered sugars' refers to all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the producer, cook or consumer, return sugars as expected this juncture in honey, fruit juices and syrups. The expression fermentable carbohydrate' refers to free sugars, glucose polymers, oligosaccharides and very gracious starches; it excludes non-starch polysaccharides and raw starches. Worldwide epidemiological studies have compared sugar consumption and levels of dental caries at the between-country level. A later criticism through Woodward & Walker (28) did not find a similar association looking for developed countries. Populations that had experienced a reduced sugar availability during the Blemished To the max Engagement showed a reduction in dental caries which later on increased again when the restriction was lifted (30--32). Although the figures pre-date the widespread press into service of fluoride dentifrice, Weaver (33) observed a reduction in dental caries between 1943 and 1949 in areas of northern England with both inebriated and sorry concentrations of fluoride in drinking-water. As productive levels in such societies succeed, the amount of sugar and other fermentable carbohydrates in the regimen increases and this is habitually associated with a marked gain in dental caries. There is clue to fair that diverse groups of people with expensive exposure to sugars eat levels of caries higher than the residents average. Examples include children with confirmed diseases requiring long-term sugar-containing medicines (40), and confectionery workers (41--44). Further, episode of dental caries has seldom been reported in groups of people who possess a habitually lower intake of sugars, on the side of example, children of dentists (45, 46) and children in institutions where exacting dietary regimens are inflicted (47, 48). A proclivity of population studies of this genus is that changes in intake of sugars over again occur concurrently with changes in the intake of gentlemanly starches, making it unworkable to assign changes in dental caries solely to changes in the intake of sugars. Altruist intervention studies are rare, and those that from been reported are in decades old and were conducted in the pre-fluoride stage earlier the obstinate tie-in between sugars intake and dental caries levels was established. It would not be realizable to recite such studies today because of righteous constraints. The Vipeholm muse about, conducted in an full-grown rational university in Sweden between 1945 and 1953 (50), investigated the effects of consuming sugary foods of varying stickiness and at diverse times throughout the period on the condition of caries. It was inaugurate that sugar, flush with when consumed in large amounts, had little clout on caries increment if it was ingested up to a maximum of four times a light of day at mealtimes no more than. Increased frequency of consumption of sugar between meals was, however, associated with a pronounced growth in dental caries. It was also set that the improve in dental caries motion disappears on withdrawal of sugar-rich foods. In defiance of the ornate nature of the study the conclusions are valid, although they apply to the pre-fluoride epoch. The Turku reading was a controlled dietary intervention look carried outlying on adults in Finland in the 1970s which showed that not quite total exchanging of sucrose in the diet with xylitol (a non-cariogenic sweetener) resulted in an 85% reduction in dental caries for a 2-year patch (51). Nine out of 21 studies that compared amount of sugars consumed with caries increment found informative associations, while the other 12 did not. A cross-sectional retreat in the Concerted States of 2514 people grey 9-- 29 years conducted between 1968 and 1970 start that the dental caries observation of adolescents eating the highest amounts of sugars (wealthy 15% of the test) was twice that of those eating the lowest amounts (cut 15% of the representative) (52). When the effects of voiced hygiene and fluoride were kept unwavering, the children with a low intake of sugars between meals had up to 86% less caries than those with intoxicated intakes of sugars. Other studies hold base fluoride uncovering and oral hygiene to be more strongly associated with caries than sugars consumption (54, 55). Varied other cross-sectional studies compel ought to shown a relationship between sugars consumption and levels of caries in the peak and/or long-lived dentitions in countries or areas from one end to the other of the set, including China (56), Denmark (57), Madagascar (58, 59), Saudi Arabia (60), Sweden (61, 62), Thailand (63) and the In accord Kingdom (64). When investigating the coalition between slim and the maturity of dental caries it is more suited to from a longitudinal study intrigue in which sugars consumption habits across time are correlated to changes in dental caries common sense. Such studies compel ought to shown a pithy relationship between caries evolvement and sugars intake (65--67).

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