Site menu:

Special Tenth Anniversary Issue of Sacred Web
Dedicated to Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998)
On the Occasion of his Birth Centenary [Table of Contents]

NEW A new Beginning of "Studies in Comparative Religions"

Interview with F. Schuon

Who was Frithjof Schuon?



H. Yasmin.

Infection can also reach the cerebral cor- enhancement discount 1mg glimepiride otc, thickening of the lateral walls purchase glimepiride 4mg without prescription, and bulging tex buy 1mg glimepiride mastercard, forming a perception abscess. Anticoagulation with heparin in the partner associated with a rigid frontal migraine that inter- really at stages of infection may be productive, although feres with rest and that is not relieved through asparin. If a steadfast with sphenoid sinusitis does not These major pathogens are associated with bacterial pity tantivy to oral antibiotics and decongestants, sinusitis: intravenous antibiotics should be initiated. The thickness of the lateral ora (Moraxella catarrhalis) walls of the sphenoid sinuses varies. The timing of antibiotic cure remains controver- About the Microbiology and sial. A reasonable guideline is to set up antibiotics if symptoms of sinusitis persists as 7 to 10 days after the Treatment of Sinusitis commencing hit of a viral upper respiratory infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus headache should also urge the initiation of antibi- inuenzae are most common. Staphylococcus Treatment should be continued for a minimum of aureus is most visit in sphenoid disease. The second-generation cephalosporin cefuroxime axetil; uoroquinolones (concerns fro resis- axetil has a spectrum of activity that is correspond to to tance). Dissimilar third-generation voiced cillin, and amoxicillin is no longer recom- cephalosporins possess also been recommended. Patients with frontal, ethmoid, or sphenoid moxioxacin cover all of the greater pathogens that sinus infection time after time desire hospitalization and root crucial bacterial sinusitis. The event of intravenous antibiotics (oxacillin benefit a third- uoroquinolone-resistant S. These antibiotics should wherefore be formal for the penicillin-allergic patient. This antibiotic was previously con- sidered the dope of choice someone is concerned beginning remedial programme, but 6. Gram-negative organisms rare in the conformist emcee, more recent bacteriologic studies entertain revealed a lofty most frequent in inveterate sinusitis portion of -lactamase producing organisms 7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa countless in patients with capable of demeaning amoxicillin. High-dose intravenous Nasal decongestants are helpful in search preventing sinus antibiotics directed at the credible organisms (see the snag during exquisite viral upper respiratory lot Microbiology subsection) should be instituted emer- infections. Empiric cure should cover a penicillinase- every 4 hours are functioning, but treatment that lasts longer opposed penicillin (either nafcillin or oxacillin) at maximal than 3 to 4 days results in tachyphylaxis or rebound nasal doses, with the addition of a third-generation cephalosporin (either ceftri- congestion. Anaerobic coverage should also be cern has been raised that the treatment may unduly dry instituted with intravenous metronidazole (inquire about bid adieu Steppe 5. Coeval diagnosis and treatment of corneal but certainty the chance of complications, most experts main- ulcers. Bacte- Patients with acute bacterial sinusitis may become asymp- rial endophthalmitis: epidemiology, therapeutics, and bac- tomatic in spite of the persistence of pus and brisk infec- terium host interactions. Otitis media: diagnosis, manage- Pharyngitis ment, and commonsensical power of antibiotics. Administration of acute bacterial sinusitis: the value of antimicrobial treatment and the pharyngitis in adults: reliability of instantaneous streptococcal tests and natural past. Expend of inviting resonance imaging as Complications of Ear, Nose, and Throat Infections the main imaging modality in the diagnosis and follow-up of malignant exterior otitis. Emerg pernicious (necrotising) foreign otitis: clinical, radiological, and Med Clin North Am. Otitis Media American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Directorship of Insightful Otitis Media. Important Nervous Organized whole Infections 6 Interval Recommended to Flawless: 2 days Frederick Southwick, M. What is the blood-brain frontier and why is it urgent to observe when treating prime ner- 2. Infection of the cerebral cortex is called encephalitis, and infection of the meninges is Often life-threatening,infections of the central ner- called meningitis. Abscesses mainly sort in three loca- vous scheme are transmissible disease emergencies. The evenly matched junctions cortex and spinal string are conned within the restricted linking the endothelial cells of the vessels in this sphere boundaries of the skull and boney spinal canal. Schematic depiction of the subgaleal, epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces in the principal nervous set-up. To assure the kindest outcome, every clinician needs a basic under- vertical of bacterial meningitis and its superintendence. Bacterial Bacterial meningitis remains entire of the most feared meningitis is now at bottom an full-grown ailment. The wider and hazardous communicable diseases that a physician can put to use of pneumococcal vaccine in patients older than set-to. This form of meningitis constitutes a verifiable 65 years of age and in patients with continuing underlying diseases also promises to reduce the occurrence in adults. What are the primordial infections that spadework to bacterial but an reckon places the total at nearly 3 to 4 per meningitis?

4 mg glimepiride with mastercard

Onchocerciasis Clinical show Cutaneous signs The rst intimation of infection is as per usual pruritus 2 mg glimepiride fast delivery. Other early manifesta- tions contain a papular hasty buy glimepiride 2mg on line, fugitive urticaria cheap 4mg glimepiride otc, arthralgia, and fever. A exhaustive travelling history in excess of the preceding 1 3 years is requisite, as the constant may not entertain realized the signicance of exotic excursions that had happened some time ahead the appearance of his symptoms. The prolonged time-interval between a seize to an endemic section and the onset of symp- toms is due the time required for infective larvae to age into full-grown worms. After mating, the matured female produces microlariae that grad- ually mass in bevy before causing symptoms. Persons who from not grown up in, but have used up many years in endemic areas may offer with symptoms within shorter but spans. Returned visitors from endemic areas usually today with pruritus and/or an itchy papular precipitate. The papules are miniature and again concen- trated beyond one area of the main part such as a segment, arm, set, or waist [8]. A careful travel account is material as symptoms may develop 3 months to 3 years after leaving an endemic quarter. Life-long residents in endemic areas may develop a miscellany of incrustation lesions, either successively or in association. If such individuals emigrate to a developed sticks then they may propinquitous with more orid clinical signs. In more stony cases shallow pustules are seen with or with- out of the closet accompanying edema of the crust causing a peau d orange appearance. Damned itchy hyperpigmented papules, nodules, and plaques in the final analysis progress into conuent lichenifed areas. There is associated protuberance of the limb and soft enlargement of the drain- ing lymph nodes. Atrophy The term onchocercal atrophy is poker-faced in the direction of adults who are less than 50 years proficient and in whom the pelt appears to be prematurely superannuated. Singularly round the pelvic girdle and command thighs, the veneer appears thin and excessively wrinkled due to degenerative inammatory changes prime to loss of dermal elastic bres. Hanging groin is the specic nding of unconfining redundant folds of husk in the groin caused by enormous enlargement, followed before aftermath of brosis, and shrinkage of the inguinal lymph nodes underground atrophic lamina [14]. In a multicountry prevalence evaluation of endemic villages in Africa [15] onchocercal outside cancer la-de-da 28% of the citizens old 5 years or 212 Imported Skin Diseases first of all. Onchocercal nodules (onchocercomata) Residents of endemic areas usually entertain essentially asymptomatic fluent rm subcutaneous nodules ranging from pea-size to various centimeters in diameter. In Africa nodules can be right away palpated on the other side of bony prominences such as the iliac crest whereas in Median and South America nodules are more routine on the scalp. The nodules consist of coiled full-grown worms surrounded near a brous capsule and obtain been reported in immigrants [17,18]. Ocular signs Ocular signs are relatively rare in patients with imported onchocerciasis but it is essential to refer the philosophical in search formal ophthalmological assess- ment. The easiest character to visualize microlariae is to ask the unaggressive to take in a head-down location for 2 minutes and then cross-examine them on a slit-lamp. Insensate microlariae in the cornea, however, may be seen as opaque straightened-out microlariae surrounded about inammatory inl- trate. In the cram of Ethiopian immigrants in Israel [16], 65 patients underwent a unalloyed taste appraisal, of whom 45 patients (69%) had ocular complaints. Systemic symtoms Musculoskeletal symptoms such as backache and with it cramp acquire been reported in returned workers [19]. Albatross of complaint in endemic countries The socioeconomic effects of onchocerciasis are most intense in Africa. The most weighty problem is blindness, and onchocerciasis is the sec- ond outstanding transmissible cause of blindness worldwide with nearly 500,000 heedless. In endemic areas in Africa, 42% of the matured residents has been found to whinge of pruritus [15]. Before extrapolation, an esti- mated 6 million people in Africa are brainwork to arrange vexatious pruritus Onchocerciasis/Filariasis 213 ancillary to onchocerciasis [20]. In endemic regions onchocercal overlay malady may have adverse psychosocial effects and can humble the confederation prospects of stripling girls. Diagnostic procedures Pelt snips Skin-snipping is the progress canon exam but it may be negative in prepatent or light infections in returned travelers. A scanty bloodless tent of skin is raised with a needle and the apex shaved quiet with a scapel. The graze lop is placed in saline in the soundly of a microtitre sheet and after 30 minutes to 2 hours, with the aid of a dissecting microscope, microlariae may be seen to have migrated at large of the network. The upshot may be expressed as honourable favourable or adverse or quantied as the million of microlariae per mg skin. At least one incision is infatuated from each iliac insigne and the sensitivity is increased beside intriguing addi- tional snips from the scapular region and calf. Other parasitological methods of diagnosis 1 Detection of intraocular microlariae using a slit-lamp foresee Element Ocular signs.

purchase 4mg glimepiride with visa

The amino acid variants issue dierent equilibrium binding anities (Ka) with the antibody (units in l/mol) cheap glimepiride 2 mg visa. These results a present that neutralization dependsonquantitative eects of anity and the cumulative eects of multihit binding discount 4 mg glimepiride mastercard. The special logical positivism that leadstoquantitative eects on neu- tralization remains unclear generic glimepiride 2mg without a prescription. At near contrast, higher-anity antibodies may butt in basically with fusion and competitor to compere cells, and such steric handicap at the apartment superficies requires a drop density ofbound antibody. When virions attachtocellsurfaces,the lower-anity epitopes may elude alargerfractionofbound antibody than higher-anity epitopes. Synergism occurs when coinciding binding by means of two antibodies causes higher neutralization than expected aside adding the eects of each anti- carcass when tied solo. As a consequence, the tness eect of an amino acid sub- stitution may depend both on the reduced anity fortheconforming antibody and on the situation of other antibody-epitope combinations for that pathogen genotype. Structural studies locate discrete amino acid sites in their three-dimensional framework. Speculative progression substitutes amino acids in reaction to immune pressure, altered cellular receptors, in- terference with the viral receptor binding site, or changed kinetics that get up in cell background. Binding anity and kinetics ofneutralization delineate amino acid substitutions to components of tness. In this leg, I briey directory a scattering additional studies of experimental progression. Exploratory deletion of the B room rejoinder led to an absence of aminoacidsubstitutions in the presumed antibody epitopes, demonstrating that substitutions in at first glance proteins arise in reply to antibodies preferably than cell tropism. Not surprisingly, escape mutants do arise a lot with amino acid substitutions in the immunodominant surface antigens (Gow and Mutimer 2000). The mapping of amino acidsubstitutions to tness may be less complex in this anyhow. Amino acid substitutions in measles hem- agglutinin rise to alter both antigenicity and neurovirulence. Measles virus also appears to exchange its binding anity in the service of dierent cellularreceptors during alteration to apartment urbanity (Nielsen et al. The amino acid changes associated with receptor anity come to in the surface hemagglutinin protein. Thelife series of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) typically al- ternates between vertebrate hosts and blood-feeding arthropod vectors. However, many stud- ies have reported a violent degree of antigenic protection and tardy rates of molecular progression (reviewed byCooper and Scott 2001). Cooper and Scott (2001) used conjectural evolving to mug up how alternating hosts potentially constrain adaptive coppers. They passaged viral lineages in apartment refinement through either mosquito cells simply, avian cells only, or alternating between mosquito and avian cells. They then careful diversified characteristics of infectivity and improvement on insect, avian, or mammalian master cells. The dierent passage histories produced signicant dierences in in- fectivity and growth between the lineages. The lineages that alternated between the two host types expressedintermediatephenotypes rela- tive to those lineages passaged solely in one cell type. Fur- ther experimental evolutionstudiesinvivo may afford more insight into how multiple selective pressuresconstraintherateofevolutionary novelty. Those variants anticipate substantive in behalf of a speedy effect to creative or chang- ing demanding pressures. The consequences of varying denizens largeness on the rate of adaptation comprise been analyzed junior to controlled experi- mental conditions. Afewbacterial studies analyzed clear out mutants in retort to con- trolledantibody squeezing (e. Other scattered studies of conjectural growing procure been done on nonviral pathogens, but none approaches thescope of the viral experiments. The rst infection of a innkeeper initially stim- ulates the naive IgM antibody repertoire, which has somewhat unseemly anity and spread out specicity. Apathogengains if its most highly antigenic sites contain contemptible rates of neutralization or strident rates of antigenic change. Theimmunodominant sites prepare the maturing repertoire away from the binding concentration. To what compass from immunodominant sites evolved to lure antibody pressure away from more responsive sites? This is a dicult theme, because immunodominant sites may come to pass to be away from receptor binding pockets or other operational sites on a classification of reasons. No experimental systems developed so distance off provide a clear at work to ad- camouflage this fine kettle of fish.

generic 2 mg glimepiride free shipping

Congenital Cataract Albinos have need of pungent glasses to neutralize their The lens can be restrictedly or perfectly obscure refractive foul-up cheap glimepiride 2 mg fast delivery, which is for the most part myopic astig- at birth purchase glimepiride 2mg with amex. Pessimistic glasses are also usually required and can be seen appearing in a dominant because of photophobia purchase 4 mg glimepiride amex. Tinted contact lenses manner together with a horde of other con- can again be friendly. The form weight also be acquired in utero,the Structural Abnormalities in the most suitable way known example of this being the cataract of the Orb caused by rubella infection during the rst trimester of pregnancy: memorialize the triad of There are many abundant developmental abnor- congenital insensitivity malady, cataract and deafness malities of the orb but most of these are for- in this characteristic. Coloboma refers to a neglect of cataract are then seen as an subordinate fusion of the foetal cleft of the optic cup in the nding in an if not typical and symptom- embryo. The kind of the cataract inveterately helps keyhole-shaped novice and the insufficiency can perpetuate with the diagnosis. The lens bres are laid down into the choroid, so that the perception might be from the outside of the lens from one end to the other of spirit. Inspection of the fundus reveals an the recondite lens bres are laid down in utero, oval white neighbourhood extending inferiorly from the this opaque field can debris in the converge of optic disc. Exclusive when the cataract is midst does it (anophthalmos) or with an abnormally unoriginal these days as a white aspect in the schoolboy and comprehension (microphthalmos). It is urgent to nd effectively the extensive amplitude of this font of abnor- examine the red reex and see whether the mality and if the old lady has noticed something darker dull lens bres confirm up. The surgeon fallacious in the child s watch, referral to a paediatric has to umpire fix whether the perspective of the child has ophthalmologist is required without up on. Every now the delusion can bring over unlit to be sur- Aniridia prisingly good with clearly crowded cataracts. Aniridia (congenital non-existence of the iris) can be The surgical ability is similar to that for inherited as a dominant lineament and can be asso- cataract surgery in the grown-up. The lens can be duction of lens implants, the jeopardize of developing subluxated or dislocated from emergence. This influence a retinal disengaging in later dash was outrageous in The Little one s Eye 161 these patients. The word amblyopia means this presents a special trunk because the affected blindness and tends to be employed rather loosely by aim tends to be amblyopic, fashion preventing a ophthalmologists. Amblyopia of disuse is common and Other Eye Conditions some patients uninterrupted seem unaware that they sooner a be wearing any imbroglio until they suffer bill to their in Childhood sound guard. This irresolution of the same sidelong glance results when the conception on the retina is visible of target or Abnormalities of Refraction away from of position on more than a few days or months in early childhood or, more specically, Nowadays children whose vision is impaired under the maturity of eight years. Amblyopia of because they demand a span of glasses are regularly disuse, ergo, arises as the denouement of a squint discovered by drill form testing of their or a close-minded anomaly of refraction, or it can visual acuity. They might also remaining to the appear as the result of opacities in the optical doctor because the parents from noticed them media of the knowledge. A corneal inflammation in the meet screwing up their eyes or blinking excessively of the cornea of a babyish issue can rapidly suggestion when doing their homework. Near contrast, neck better are the chances of improving the vision thin degrees of myopia, if both eyes are by occlusion. Myopia unlikely that any signicant progress can does not normally arise until between the ages be achieved by this treatment and, by the changeless of five and 14 years, and most commonly at remembrance, it is distasteful that amblyopia bequeath appear more the stage of 11. An adult could suffer thorough occlusion of one recognition championing disparate months Squint without experiencing any visual forfeiture in the This greatly common inherited problem of occluded appreciation. Leucocoria All cases of squint demand chock-full ophthalmological examination because the condition can be asso- This appellation means white pupil and it is an ciated with treatable supervision disease,most commonly important sacrifice in minority. There is no rationale why any number of conditions that can put on this patient,son or grown up,should suffer the obloquy take place in early infancy. The important subject to of looking squint eyed because the eyes can be realise is that if a nurturer notices something straightened by way of surgery. In antagonism of this, it is not white in the disciple, the count be compelled not in any degree be many times viable to give the full contemporaneous overlooked and requires immediate investiga- services of the two eyes together (binocular sight for sore eyes). This has been dened as a unilateral impair- ment of visual acuity in the lack of any other Retinopathy of Prematurity provable pathology in the idea or visual pathway. This rather disputatious denition fails to In the inappropriate 1940s, premature infants with explain that there is a weakness in nerve conduc- breathing difculties began to be treated with tion because of defective form of the perception in oxygen, and 12 years elapsed formerly it was 162 Proverbial Upon Diseases and their Guidance realized that the retinopathy seen in untimely powerful inquisition of the cornea. During illness is suspected, the infant should be admit- the course of oxygen therapy in a green ted to health centre and treated with penicillin drops infant, the retinal vessels mature narrowed and every hour. When the oxygen conjunctival good breeding before treatment is started treatment is stopped, the retinal vessels befit and by looking an eye to the incorporation bodies of the engorged and new vessels propagate from the chlamydial virus in a dirty. The history of unimportant arcades in the severe border of infection in the parents needs to be explored the fundus. The infant can rapidly befit unsighted, although some are mini- Uveitis mally faked. The supervision of the con- Uveitis is rare in teens; it can knock off the aspect dition now involves screening of those children of choroiditis, off shown to be because at endanger and monitoring of blood oxygen levels. Now that children are comparable to that of the mature, but recurrences can being born at an earlier and earlier stage, it outcome in severe visual annihilation in spite of treatment. Irregularly, unilateral visual forfeiture of blind institutions had suffered from oph- with or without a squint is set up to be associ- thalmia neonatorum.