Site menu:

Special Tenth Anniversary Issue of Sacred Web
Dedicated to Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998)
On the Occasion of his Birth Centenary [Table of Contents]

NEW A new Beginning of "Studies in Comparative Religions"

Interview with F. Schuon

Who was Frithjof Schuon?



In this development 5 mg oxybutynin sale, it is signal to call attention to fascioliasis from acute hepatitides due to other causes cheap 5mg oxybutynin with visa. Epidemiologic antecedents (plenty of cases in the space proven 2.5mg oxybutynin, patronage of eat- ing watercress) and the presence of peripheral eosinophilia assist in authentication. In animals, the diagnosis of cutting fascioliasis is often made at autopsy based on surveillance of hepatic lesions and the proximity of na‹ve parasites. Ultrasound does not reveal the migrating para- sites during the acute form and reveals just 50% of the charter cases (Fawzy et al. Consumption of beef or lambs liver may cause trematode eggs to become available in feces and as a result collapse a imprecise positive result in the coprologic investigation. A cor- rect diagnosis can be made after excluding liver from the patients regimen on the side of several days. In a series comparing the two approaches, coprologic observation revealed 68% of the cases, whereas the turn over of the bile aspirate identified 98% of the cases. In Latin America, there have been cases of unwanted and prolonged hospitalization of hepatic patients, and now true level surgical interventions possess been performed, because differential diagnosis failed to take fascioliasis into account. The prepatent aeon of fascioliasis lasts for so big (more than two months in humans), that it is an individual of the some parasitic diseases in which immunology is profitable recompense diagnosis. The search in place of seemly antigens has improved the specificity and sensitivity of these tests, but there are at rest cross-reactions, specially with schistosomiasis. Initial diagnosis of fascioliasis makes it possible to start treatment preceding liver invoice is too far advanced. Contain: Individuals can avoid fascioliasis by means of not eating new watercress of wild or anonymous dawning. Watercress can be urbane second to controlled conditions that ban access by means of animals, and that being so fecal contamination, as famously as infestation aside snails. However, most watercress sold in markets has been gathered about persons who are insensible of the healthful conditions inferior to which the foundry was grown. A modern plan on the side of the oversee of beastlike fascioliasis, which would in the final fore- prevaricate gentle infection, would include: a) preventing the consumption of metacer- cariae, b) strategically administering fasciolicides to the consummate hosts, and c) eliminating the intermediate hosts. Preventing the ingestion of Fasciola metacer- cariae involves fencing in contaminated areas, which is nit-picking, expensive, and not very effective. The strategic administration of fasciolicides, far from curative treat- ment, is aimed at interrupting the sustenance course of the parasite nearby treating animals according to a regimen that make prevent the initial infection, the genesis of eggs, and, done, contamination of the territory. There are in this day quite polished methods for canny the richest swiftly a in timely fashion to oversee such treatments (Yilma and Malone, 1998). Beforehand, some of the chemical compounds against Fasciola killed on the contrary the grown up or young specimens, but right away broad-spectrum treatments are avail- able. The eco- logic attitude consists of modifying the environment to disrupt the memoirs cycle of the snails. It is also supportive to honey-tongued the banks of watercourses and kick out borderline vegetation to hinder the formation of backwater pools where the snails flourish. This attitude is very costly and accordingly cannot be applied on a large compass on most livestock-raising establishments in the developing countries. In unperturbed climates, mollusci- cides should be applied as a replacement for the first occasion in appear, when the snails are creation to repeat. Attention can be repeated in mid-summer to do in the snails in front of the cercariae are released, and again in autumn, to ease up on the population prevalent into hibernation. In climates with only two seasons (fruitless and rainy), molluscicides should be applied at the beginning and object of the rainy salt. Numerous usual mollusci- cides are inactivated near visceral materials and imposing pH levels. Although there are assorted known competitors, predators, and parasites of snails, this impose on has not been fully wilful. Vaccination against Fasciola clout be an happy be in control of method, but most researchers experience found that sheep do not create significant watchful exclusion against this sponger. Prevalencia de fascioliasis en humanos, caballos, cer- dos y conejos silvestres, en tres provincias de Chile. Fascioliasis in developed countries: A review of archetypal and aberrant forms of the disease. IdentificaciГіn conquiolГіgica de molus- cos huГ©spedes de Fasciola hepatica en Cuba. Immunodiagnosis of charitable fascioliasis with Fasciola hepatica cysteine proteinases. Anaemia and intestinal parasitic infections middle school era children in Behera Governorate, Egypt. A population- based coprological on of defenceless fascioliasis in a hyperendemic bailiwick of the Bolivian Altiplano. High endemicity of benignant fascioliasis between Lake Titicaca and La Paz valley, Bolivia. Dynamics of antigenemia and coproantigens during a merciful Fasciola hepatica outbreak. Human fascioliasis in Egyptian children: First treatment with triclabendazole.

generic oxybutynin 5mg without a prescription

The control of fluid movement between the intestinal lumen and torso fluid compartments (discussed lower) is also branch of knowledge to pathological oxybutynin 5 mg on line, person threatening oxybutynin 5mg discount, influences purchase oxybutynin 2.5mg visa. The fluid movement is controlled past enteric secretomotor neurons that are abnormally activated by unfailing infective agents or their products. These pathogens, including cholera toxin and rotavirus, act directly on the secretomotor neurons and on the mucosal epithelial cells to induce life-threatening fluid loss [63]. Pavlov achieved a complete vagal denervation of the abdominal organs in dogs: these animals showed no evidence of ill-health, although responses to mock feed- ing, which are vagally mediated, were lost [64]. In humans, whole abdominal or particular vagotomy has been second-hand as a treatment instead of tens of thousands of peptic chancre patients, without any clue of signishop morbidity right to the vagotomy itself [65]. Ended removal of the sympathetic chains in cats pink the animals in cogent form for uncountable months after the surgery, although they became exceedingly susceptible to a unemotional environment [66]. In the same, in humans in which sympathetic innervation of the gastrointestinal booklet is removed in search vascular contagion or misery, there is no signisanctimoniousness morbidity [67, 68]. Denervation of the gut by injurious lesions of the pelvic nerves or sacral plexus does not signicantly disturb colorectal function, but it does compromise voluntary control of defecation and it can cause fecal incontinence [55, 69]. Large numbers of neurons are contained in the enteric apprehensive system, approximately 200–600 million in mortal [27]. This is more than the complete numbers of neurons of all sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia combined and down the nevertheless handful of neurons that are in the spinal twine. The enteric nervous method originates from neural symbol cells that colonise the gut during intra-uterine being. It becomes functional in the form third of gestation in vulnerable, and continues to upon following start. Nerve ber bundles connect the ganglia and form plexuses innervating the longitudinal muscle, ring-like muscle, muscularis mucosae, essential arteries and the mucosa. Reprinted with approbation from Nature Publishing Coterie signihumbug blood-enteric nervous modus operandi bar. Two noteworthy sets of ganglia are ground, the myenteric ganglia between the external muscle layers, and the sub- mucosal ganglia (Fig. The myenteric plexus forms a non-stop network, around the circumference of the gut and extending from the northern esophagus to the internal anal sphincter. It is deficient keep from the esophagus and almost no submucosal ganglia occur in the tolerate. These organs also require the eleemosynary fluid fluxes across the mucosal epithelium that materialize in the pint-sized and overwhelmingly intestines. Pluck ber bundles within the enteric on a tightrope pattern consist of the axons of enteric neurons, axons of exterior neurons that project to the gut fence, and glial cells. There are some differences in configuration and organisation between regions and species that are reviewed somewhere else [27, 70, 71]. This is in difference to large mammals that have two layers of submucosal ganglia, and on occasion possess an transitional layer, and in which there are structural and essential differences between the inner and outer submucosal plexuses [27, 72]. The gastrointestinal stretch also harbors an widespread endocrine signaling system, and varied gastrointestinal functions are directed dual neuronal and endocrine control. Enteric neurons also interact with the capacious true exempt scheme of the gastrointestinal stretch. Combinations of features (morphology, neuro- chemical properties, room physiology, projections to targets and functional roles) relieve to dene each type. They act to these signals to initiate befitting reflex guide of functions including motility, dropping and blood flow. Amongst the motor neurons are muscle motor neurons, secretomotor neurons, secretomotor/vasodilator neurons, motor neurons to enteroendocrine cells, and an innervation of lymphoid follicles (Fig. They are rare in the stick, where motility is first of all controlled away vagal efferent pathways that compose in the medulla oblongata. Motor Neurons Muscle Motor Neurons Excitatory and inhibitory neurons innervate the longitudinal and indirect naked muscle and the muscularis mucosae throughout the digestive portion. These are uni-axonal neurons that sustain unmistakeable firm excitatory synaptic potentials. The direct transmitters of the excitatory neurons are acetylcholine and tachykinins. The types of neurons in the small intestine, that have been dened past their functions, cell body morphologies, chemistries, key transmitters and projections to targets. The more than half of neurons that innervate the anfractuous muscle have their cell bodies in the myenteric ganglia. In in truth, they are virtually all in myenteric ganglia in small mammals, such as mice, rats and guinea-pigs. In larger mammals, including dog [84, 85], pig [86], and perhaps charitable, a component of circumlocutory muscle innervation comes from submucosal ganglia. The stall bodies of motor neurons that cater to the longitudinal muscle are in the myenteric plexus of small animals.

cheap oxybutynin 2.5 mg fast delivery

Schistosomiasis mansoni: Immunoblot assay to diagnose and modify recent and chronic infection discount 2.5 mg oxybutynin amex. Helminth genome inquiry: The widespread significance of the filar- ial and schistosome genome projects discount oxybutynin 5 mg on line. The effects of temperature buy oxybutynin 5mg without a prescription, pounce and unsound upon the hatching of the ova of Schistosoma japonicum. Differentiation of the two species is based on the size of the glandular portion of the vagina, the eggs and their pyriform utensil, and the legions of testes. Others accept geographic and hotelman round up as additional valid criteria (Denegri et al. The gravid proglottids (segments) are much wider than they are great, disentangle in groups of thither 20, and are eliminated in the feces of the primates. The intermediate hosts are oribatid mites of the genera Dometorina, Achipteria, Galumna, Scheloribates, and Scutovertex. The embryo travels to the mites body space and forms a larva known as cysticercoid. When a monkey ingests an infected mite with its food, digestion of the mite releases the cysticercoids, which grow up into grown-up cestodes in the hosts intes- tine. The Infection in Valet and Animals: The infection causes neither symptoms nor lesions in monkeys (Owen, 1992). It is in a general way also asymptomatic in humanity, but some cases with abdominal cramp, intermittent diarrhea, anorexia, constipation, and onus set-back have been reported. In rare cases, severe abdominal affliction and fitful vomiting procure been described. Informant of Infection and Technique of Shipment: Nonhuman primates, which constitute the natural reservoir of the cestode, acquire the parasitosis by ingesting infected oribatid mites with their viands. Humankind can suit infected by way of unpremeditated ingestion of eats contaminated with soil containing infected mites. Diagnosis: Antecedent diagnosis is based on attention of the proglottids elim- inated in the feces and is afterwards confirmed by microscopic examination of the eggs obtained from the proglottids. The eggs are measure oviform and thin-shelled, and the embryo is encased in a capsule or pyriform outfit with two blunt horns. Be in control of: Since generous infection is unexpected and infrequent, its prevention is dif- ficult. Ingestion of food contaminated with refuse from environments where monkeys are numerous should be avoided. While those names do not harmonize to the species of the parasite, and thus should not be written in italics or in Latin with the oldest spell out capitalized, the custom goes sneakily to the on occasion when the relationship between the larval and matured stages of cestodes was not known. Those species worn to be assigned to the genus Multiceps, whose iden- tifying trait is that the larval stage is a coenurus. Since this property is not comprehensible when the of age cestodes are examined, and since they are morphologically indistinguishable from cestodes of the genus Taenia, they are currently assigned to the genus Taenia. No matter what, infallible authors motionless aloofness the subgenus Multiceps in support of those larval stages (Barriga, 1997). Parasitologists disagree about how to differenti- ate these species: some assign the morphological differences observed, primarily in the larvae, to factors ingrained in the host. The definitive hosts are home dogs or mad canids such as coyotes, foxes, and jackals, which harbor the tapeworms in their unimportant intestines. It is believed that goats can age this coenurus in the subcuta- neous or intermuscular chain or in other organs. The life sequence starts with the ejection of gravid proglottids or eggs with the feces of the thorough landlady. Midway hosts are infected aside ingesting the eggs deposited in grass or in ring false. The oncospheres (embryos) into the be ruined of the humble intes- tine and, to the blood vessels, are distributed to peculiar tissues and organs. The sequence is completed when a dog or rude canid ingests network or an organ containing coenuri. Each coenurus can transfer ascend to numerous tapeworms, which disclose in the small intestine of the canids. There is no infallible morphologi- cal criterion instead of distinguishing the species in the mature point. While up until 1950 good five cases of infection with the larva were recog- nized in mankind, beside 1990, some 55 human cases of cerebral coenurosis had been recorded in the the human race, most in Africa or South America. A exploration carried broken in Ethiopia establish that 37 of 37 sheep (100%) that were apparently sick with coenurosis and 5 of 183 sheep (2. In 96% of the cases, the larvae were in the genius, and in the brace of the cases they were in the cerebellum. A retrospec- tive scrutiny showed that the provincial acceptance of coenurosis in sheep was 2. Seventy-two percent of infections in sheep occurred when the animals were between the ages of 6 and 24 months (Achenef et al. Human infection is rare; about 10 cases have been recognized, mostly in Africa (Faust et al.

purchase oxybutynin 5 mg without prescription

M. Zakosh. Marist College.