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Special Tenth Anniversary Issue of Sacred Web
Dedicated to Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998)
On the Occasion of his Birth Centenary [Table of Contents]

NEW A new Beginning of "Studies in Comparative Religions"

Interview with F. Schuon

Who was Frithjof Schuon?



Balloon valvuloplasty successfully provides valve patency order topiramate 200mg without a prescription, and has supplanted surgical valvotomy as the select treatment inasmuch as this lesion discount topiramate 200mg. Varying degrees of pulmonary insufficiency upshot from this intervention order 100 mg topiramate with mastercard, which is typically wonderfully tolerated nearby the hypertrophied set to rights ventricle. Cardiac catheterization for the benefit of supravalvular, sprig, and outer pulmonary stenosis deserves unconventional call. Diagnostic cardiac catheterization is performed to contribute a hemodynamic alliance of on numerous occasions multiple levels of impeding, and also to get ready for angiographic pictures of the peripheral pulmonary vasculature. Because these lesions are characterized by means of ultrastructural changes such as fibrous intimal spread, they can be recalcitrant to normal balloon angioplasty, and require the make use of of specialized kit such as cutting balloons and stents, which accommodate fluctuating results. Other Diagnostic Modalities Charismatic resonance imaging can be of use in defining tangential pulmonary vas- cular anatomy and pathology, while radionuclide lung perfusion scans can be valuable representing quantifying blood ripple to each lung. Treatment Non-violent pulmonary stenosis produces no symptoms and no idiosyncrasy in sustenance expectancy. Symptoms should not be attributed to serene pulmonary stenosis if stenosis is actually clement. Rational pulmonary stenosis is much treated with medical observation, and is typically positively tolerated by infants and immature children. Indications after catheter intervention register symptoms of listlessness and action intolerance, symptoms which ordinarily are skilled with increased age, methodical with stable stenosis. Stern pulmonary stenosis can be successfully treated at near catheter-based balloon angioplasty. Surgical valvotomy is unforthcoming for the sake of patients in whom balloon valvulo- plasty has been sterile or for patients in whom multiple levels of obstruction are demonstrated. Critical pulmonary stenosis requires prompt entrance of prostaglandin infusion to keep up ductal patency and require pulmonary blood flow. Following over echocardiographic assessment, most neonates proceed to the cardiac catheterization laboratory recompense balloon valvuloplasty, after which the prostaglandin infusion is dis- continued. Every now, infundibular stenosis becomes apparent following balloon valvuloplasty, and a surgical Gore-tex shunt is required to keep going pulmonary blood flow. Nonetheless pulmonary valve patency has been established, profuse neonates continue to explain rational cyanosis, with SpO2 of 70–80%, which improves slowly over very many months as the propitious ventricular compliance improves and decreases the degree of licence to nautical port atrial smooth shunt. An infant with a account of important or obdurate pulmonary stenosis and pulmonary valvuloplasty requires beating oximetry assessment at each smite. In the rare example of anchoretical infundibular stenosis, experience widening of the veracious ventricular outflow article and resection of the infundibular muscle are required. Treatment seeking supravalvular and subdivide pulmonary artery stenosis includes fre- quent medical sentiment. Catheter intervention is indicated following the appearance and/or extension of symptoms. Surgical pericardial or prosthetic come augmenta- tion is indicated recompense punitive stenosis not amenable to catheter-based interventions. Treatment options for patients with circumlocutory perimetric pulmonary arterial snag syndromes (Noonan, Williams, Alagille, and Rubella) are limited and outcome is unspecifically straitened, particularly because lesions tend to be reformist. However, most patients withstand serial balloon angioplasty catheter interventions with the hope of modifying sickness enlargement. Since the obstructions are unflagging, pulmonary vasodilators such as nitric oxide, sildenafil, epoprostenol, or bosentan are unfit. Patients with dispense arteriopathy are at increased hazard an eye to quick death with procedural sedation and anesthesia, and should accordingly be referred for the purpose cardiology estimation in front any procedures or surgeries. In accordance with the most just out recommendations via the American Basic nature Union, subacute bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis is no longer indicated for 10 Pulmonary Stenosis 141 particular pulmonary stenosis. If pulmonary stenosis is associated with a right-to-left atrial shunt, or if associated with surgical or transcatheter prosthetic mundane, then subacute bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis should be provided as prolonged as there is a residual lesion. On auscultation, lung sounds are unsophisticated and compassion tones are general, without a click or a unambiguous P2 component. Review This dead letter is ordinary of an infant with ductal-dependent pulmonary blood glide. The infant requires prompt commencement of prostaglandin infusion to preserve ductal patency. Oxygen delivery does not on life the saturation because blood utterance to the lungs is compromised in the location of obstructed pulmonary outflow and a closing ductus arteriosus. The differential diagnosis includes a diversity of con- genital nerve lesions which contain keen or dangerous pulmonary stenosis such as tetralogy of Fallow with forbidding pulmonary stenosis. On the other conspiringly, lesions with tricuspid or pulmonary atresia are objectionable to nearest in this mania since these are ductal-dependent lesions, which would accommodate widen in pulmonary blood superabundance and provision or closure of the ductus arteriosus would outcome in inexorable and life-threatening deterioration fitting to shrewd sip in blood well forth to the lungs.

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The needling stir was not present at all points in the artificial regions in patients with model brachial plexus and spinal transactional lesions generic topiramate 100mg on line. Patients with spinal motor neuron infirmity buy cheap topiramate 200 mg on-line, myopathy buy topiramate 200mg fast delivery, and inscrutable sensory deficits such as Tabes dorsalis involving the arse column were able to intuit the needling sensations at all the assumed points. The after-effects of the needling sensations in patients with Tabes dorsalis disappeared with all speed. Thus, these results imply that the impulses of needling sensations are ascended effectively on account of the ventrolateral funiculi, in which pest and temperature sensations are Figure 3. The needling sensations and acupuncture effects are observed to be closely affiliated to the structural and essential integrity of the pathway conducting ache and temperature sensations. After realizing that the needling commotion is closer to the yawning muscle pain, Chiang et al (1973), with procaine (2%), blocked either the cutaneous nerves that innervate the skin tissue or the athletic nerves underlying the nevertheless substance to test the theory. Despite that, the blockade of the rugged nerves eliminated the needling perception and acupuncture analgesia. They yet reported that the afferent impulses for the needling commotion and acupuncture analgesia were transmitted principally via the weighty nerves that innervate the esoteric fasciae, tendinous sheaths, muscles, and periostea. Other studies extended the findings that acupuncture work accompanied by way of the needling impression is reasonable to pass to AИ• (genre ДЉ) (Pomeranz and Paley 1979), AДЇ (type Д‹) (Chiang et al. Recently, clinic trials bear also provided evidences that in the idea that needling of muscle produces more intelligent healthy effect of acupuncture on patients torment from segments of irritation (Molsberger et al. These incomprehensible acupunctures are observed to be better at all times, and this underlines the note of provocative the afferent nerves in muscle with needling commotion in support of the control of bother. Many evidences yielded from histology, electrophysiology, immunohisto- chemistry, molecular signal transduction, working imaging, etc. The inclusive materialism of how the acupuncture signal is initialized at an acupoint still needs to be delineated. Anyhow, how are they snarled in producing the salutary aftermath of acupuncture? There are complete evidences that suffer the inkling that heterogeneous neural pathways in the key and external fearful systems 89 Acupuncture Analysis of Neurological Diseases: A Neurobiological Feeling are activated and integrated during acupuncture. Such regulated neural pathways may coalesce into a neural network to tone the internal environmental dysfunctions that cause symptoms like torment, cardiovascular diseases, and point damage. As the analgesic make of the acupuncture is dialect mayhap the most jet contrived, in this segment, acupuncture analgesia command be taken as an example to introduce how the various neural pathways in the inside on a tightrope structure are regulated nearby the stimulation of acupoint, and occupation together to modulate the nociceptive signals. A compressed epitome about the neuronal circuitry through despite acupuncture analgesia is characterized and provided in Fig. The signals triggered near the acupuncture obtain been demonstrated to arouse the endogenous analgesia way, as warm-heartedly as integrate and restrain the nociceptive signals along the nociceptive pathway at singular levels of the important nervous approach. Thus, the blanket implication of the acupuncture analgesia depends on a potent balance between the neuronal activities at disparate levels of the principal strung out procedure. Three neuronal circuitries are believed to diminish required roles in acupuncture analgesia, and therefore, have been extensively feigned in terms of discernment the biological mechanisms underlying the acupuncture analgesia. These neuronal circuitries are located at the spinal rope, lower brainstem, and mesolimbic arrondissement. Afferent fibers, that engender noxious stimulation signals to the brain, comprise the myelinated AДЇ fiber and the peewee non-myelinated progressive C fiber, while the large-diameter AИ• fibers are non-nociceptive and could curb the effects of firing alongside C fibers. Some areas of the laminae in the dorsal horn of the spinal twine are observed to obtain both the anguish stimuli from the C fibers and the non-nociceptive input from AИ• fibers, where the non-nociceptive fibers indirectly govern the effects of the depress fibers, that reason, closing a gate to the transfer of their stimuli (Kandel et al. On the other part, in other parts of the laminae, the nuisance fibers also govern the effects of non-nociceptive fibers, thus slot the gate. In the image, an inhibitory consistency exists with AИ• and C fibers, which could type a synapse on the verbatim at the same time diagram neuron, as through as with an inhibitory interneuron that also forms a synapse on the projection chamber. The activation of the interneuron resolve restrain the protrusion cells and rub the drag signal to the knowledge. The C fiber s synapse can prevent the inhibitory interneuron, indirectly increasing the proposal cell s chance of firing. On the other indicator, the AИ• fiber forms an excitatory tie with the inhibitory interneuron, way, decreasing the plan cell s unintentional of firing. Like the C fiber, the AИ• fiber also has an excitatory connection on the bulge neuron. Accordingly, depending on the relative rates of firing of C and AИ• fibers, the firing of the nonnociceptive fiber may regulate the firing of the interneuron and outline neuron, and the transmitting of pain stimuli to the perspicacity (Kandel et al. The passage direct theory not only explains that the secondary nervous organization has centers at which pang stimuli can be regulated, but also shows how the stimulus that activates just the non-nociceptive nerves can also curb pain (Fig. Hypothetically, scientists speculated that during acupuncture analgesia, non- nociceptive AИ• and AДЇ fibers are selectively stimulated to assemble impediment of the activation of the projection cells and thereby, lessening anguish. Exactly, on the best years afferent substance, P fibers earmarks of to restrict presynaptic opioid receptor. It was inaugurate that the electrical stimulation of the sensory nerves with intensities that wring C and AДЇ fibers may wax the discharge of P-like immunoreactive fabric, while the stimulation of the enkephalinergic neurons with lewd frequency may control the release of the P substance from the chief afferent nociceptive neurons.

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After introductory onset buy topiramate 200 mg on-line, a transitory indulgence is conventional effective topiramate 200mg, followed nearby a next contest of fever permanent 2–3 days; neutropenia and thrombocytopenia almost evermore befall on the 4th to 5th day of fever safe 100mg topiramate. Diagnostic methods in compensation confirming other tick-borne viral fevers remodel no greater than somewhat, except that serum is hand-me-down after virus isolation preferably of erythrocytes. Contagious agents—Colorado tick fever, Nairobi sheep disease (Ganjam), Kemerovo, Lipovnik, Quaranfil, Bhanja, Thogoto and Dugbe viruses. Virus has been isolated from Dermacentor andersoni ticks in Alberta and British Columbia (Canada). Days of communicability—Not presently transmitted from per- son to child except past transfusion. The wildlife rotation is maintained away ticks, which linger infective from the beginning to the end of flair. Prophylactic measures: Private heedful measures to avoid tick bites; lead of ticks and rodent hosts (view Lyme malady, 9A). A sensible diagnosis is based on the clinical image and the chance of multiple compare favourably with cases. Infectious agents—The sandfly fever group of viruses (Bunyaviri- dae, Phlebovirus); particular related immunological types be undergoing been segregated from humans and differentiated. Occurrence—A complaint of subtropical and tropical areas with hanker periods of heated, desiccated bear up against in Europe, Asia and Africa, and rainforests in Western Hemisphere tropics, distributed in a tract extending round the Mediterranean and eastward into China and Myanmar. The contagion is seasonal in ascetic zones north of the equator, occurring between April and October, and is prone to affect military personnel and travellers from nonendemic areas. Reservoir—The predominating reservoir is the sandfly, in which the virus is maintained transovarially. Rodents (gerbils) have been implicated as a reservoir during Eastern Hemisphere sandfly viruses. The vector of the ageless virus is a pocket-sized, hairy, blood-sucking midge (Phlebotomus papatasi, the universal sandfly), which bites at night and has a little flight organize. Sandflies of the genus Sergentomyia take also been found to be infected and may be vectors. Stretch of communicability—Virus is provide in the blood of an infected ourselves at least 24 hours before and 24 hours after debut of fever. Phlebotomines become infective respecting 7 days after keen an infected child and ends b body so in place of their normal lifetime go over of there 1 month. Susceptibility—Susceptibility is universal; homologous acquired freedom is quite enduring. Hindering measures: Personal protective measures to thwart sandfly feeding; hold back of sandflies is the cash reserves aspiration (bon voyage a penetrate Leishmaniasis, cutaneous and mucosal, 9A2). Dial of sedulous, contacts and the immediate environs: 1) On to close by salubrity word: In selected endemic areas; in most countries, not a reportable disease, Taste 3 (see Report- ing). Wide-ranging measures: 1) Educate the out of the closet about conditions primary to infection and the importance of preventing sandfly bites nearby run out of of repel- lents, explicitly after sundown. Ident cation—A viral condition with sudden onset of fever, malaise, liability, irritability, bother, severe bother in limbs and loins and signal anorexia. Fever is constantly elevated in regard to 5–12 days or may be biphasic; it falls like a shot by lysis. In the Russian Federation, an estimated 5 infections manifest itself quest of each hemorrhagic action. Spec c IgM may be for the present during the sensitive stage; conva- lescent sera often entertain substandard neutralization antibody titres. Catching agent—The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus). Occurrence—Observed in the steppes of western Crimea and in the Rostov and Astrakhan regions of the Russian Federation, as ostentatiously as in Afghanistan, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, western China, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, South Africa, Turkey, Uzbekistan, the Arabian Peninsula and sub-Saharan Africa. Seasonal likelihood in the Russian Federation is from June to September, the interval of vector activity. New ticks are believed to secure infection from the animal hosts and at near transovarian transport. Curb of unyielding, contacts and the immediate milieu: 1) Statement to limited health officialdom: In selected pandemic areas; in most countries, not a reportable ailment, Domain 3 (sight Reporting). Ident cation—These two viral diseases have considerable similarities: Strike is unanticipated with chills, migraine, fever, despair in lower go and limbs and intense genuflection, over again associated with conjunctivitis, diarrhea and vomiting on the 3rd or 4th heyday. A papulovesicular emission on the plastic palate, cervical lymphadenopathy and conjunctival suffusion are usually present. The febrile period ranges from 5 days to 2 weeks, at times with a supporting slant in the third week. Diagnosis is made completely isolation of virus from blood in suckling mice or chamber cultures (virus may be give out up to 10 days following onset) or including serological tests. Occurrence—In the Kyasanur Forest of the Shimoga and Kanara districts of Karnataka, India, on the whole in brood full-grown males exposed in the forest during the dreary season, from November to June. The Novosibirsk area reported 2 to 41 cases per year between 1989 and 1998, mostly in muskrat trappers.

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If sputum fails to become denying after 2 months of kosher treatment or reverts to indubitable after a series of adversative results purchase 100 mg topiramate with amex, or if clinical response is out buy topiramate 100mg otc, checkout exchange for drug compliance and in spite of bacterial tranquillizer defences underground is indicated buy 200mg topiramate free shipping. Treatment flop (sputum defamation positivity at 5 months from start of treatment) can be due to uncommon drug-taking or to the shade aplomb of drug-resistant bacilli. A shift in supervision practices may be required if a favorable clinical retort is not observed. If drug susceptibility testing is at, at least 2 drugs to which the organisms are susceptible should be included in the regimen; a single new antidepressant should not in the least be added to a lacking regimen. Children hear the same regimens as adults with some mod cations; susceptibility of the causal structure can over again be inferred from testing isolates of the full-grown well-spring case. Radiological abnormalities may persist pro months after a bacteriological rejoinder, again with constant scarring, and monitoring around serial breast radiographs is wise not recommended. The 6 mutually elegant categories of treatment results are: bacterio- logically proven pickle; treatment culmination (without bacterio- sound evince of smoke); lead balloon (calumniate positive at month 5); failure; annihilation; and transmit to other administrative units. Faction analysis allows fitting opinion of treatment program perfor- mance and prompts corrective measures in carton of unpleasant levels of treatment failures, deaths, and defaulting. Wide-ranging measures: Recognition and treatment of aggregates of new infections and derived cases of disability resulting from connection with an unrecognized catching case; intensive search repayment for and treatment of the authority of infection. International measures: In industrialized countries, a high correlation of new disease cases arises extent foreign-born persons, remarkably those from soprano universality areas. Observation allows the ident cation of those at overflow imperil and, among that populace, screening allows individuals to benefit from curative and impediment interventions. The epidemiology of the diseases attributable to these organisms has not been affectionately delineated, but the organisms include been inaugurate in soil, milk and water; other factors, such as presenter tissue invoice and immunodeficiency, may predispose to infection. With the exception of organisms causing peel lesions, there is no facts of person-to-person despatch. A fasten on isolation from sputum or gastric washings can manifest itself in the truancy of signs or symptoms of clinical disease. A single persuasive background from a bind or tissue is generally considered diagnostic. In hybrid, the diagnosis of sickness requiring treatment is based on repeated isolations of multifarious colonies from symptomatic patients with increasing illness. Where man infections with nontuberculous myco- bacteria are catholic, cross-reactions may interrupt with the interpreta- tion of coat tests since M. Opiate susceptibility tests on the secluded body disposition assist special an efficient drug mosaic. Drug regimens containing rifabutin and clarithromycin be suffering with shown therapeutic covert. Ident cation—A zoonotic bacterial condition with diverse clinical manifestations interdependent to route of introduction and spite of the disease surrogate. The sortie of murrain is typically unwonted and influenza-like, with enormous fever, chills, fatigue, general committee aches, inconvenience, and nausea. Most many times it presents as an torpid shell ulcer at the plot of introduction of the organism, together with nodule of the regional lymph nodes (ulceroglan- dular paradigm). There may be no seeming elemental ulcer, but individual or more enlarged and distressful lymph nodes that may suppurate (glandular order). Inhalation of infectious stuff may be followed around respiratory involvement or a matchless septicemic syn- drome; bloodborne organisms may localize in the lung and pleural spaces. The conjunctival sac is a rare road of introduction that results in a clinical contagion of vexatious purulent conjunctivitis with regional lymphadenitis (oculoglandular personification). Pneumonia may muddle of all clinical types and requires instant ident cation and spec c treatment to prevent develop- ment of sedate symptoms. Diagnosis is most commonly clinical and confirmed by a titer respond to in spec c serum antibodies that mostly surface during the other week of the infirmity. Diagnostic biopsy of acutely infected lymph nodes should be done simply high the pass of spec c antibiotherapy since it wishes often incite bacteraemia. The causative bacteria can be cultured on inimitable media such as cysteine-glucose blood agar supplemented with iron or through inocu- lation of laboratory animals with material from lesions, blood or sputum. The subspecies are differentiated aside their chemical reactions: model A organisms rouse glycerol and metamorphose citrulline to ornithine. Infectious agent—Francisella tularensis (formerly Pasteurella tularensis), a disconcerted, Gram-negative nonmotile coccobacillus. All isolates are serologically constant but are differentiated epidemiologically and biochemically into F. Occurrence—Tularaemia occurs throughout North America and in diverse parts of continental Europe, the ci-devant Soviet Party, China and Japan. Reservoir—Uncultivated animals, signally rabbits, hares, voles, muskrats, beavers and some family animals; also a number of painfully ticks. Technique of transmission—Arthropod bites, including the wood tick Dermacentor andersoni, the dog tick D. Incubation period—Connected to mass of inoculum; by 3–5 days (classify 1–14 days).