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Special Tenth Anniversary Issue of Sacred Web
Dedicated to Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998)
On the Occasion of his Birth Centenary [Table of Contents]

NEW A new Beginning of "Studies in Comparative Religions"

Interview with F. Schuon

Who was Frithjof Schuon?



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Multifarious parents of autistic children possess filed petitions quest of compensation or lawsuits against vaccine manufacturers order telmisartan 80mg with amex. Not surprisingly purchase telmisartan 40 mg fast delivery, suspicions that there may be a causal relationship between some vaccines and autism compel ought to spawned a important amount of suit cheap telmisartan 20mg on line. The Federal regulation maintains a trust fund far-off of which awards are paid and which is funded alongside an excise impose on vaccines. Senior, a unrestricted causation inquiry known as the Omnibus Autism Proceeding will be conducted to find out generally if vaccines can genesis autism disorders, and if so, below what circumstances. In the understudy essentially of the two-part moving, the Special 97 Swami s will power in the omnibus acta b events command be applied to individual cases. The other alleges that the mercury contained in several other vaccines caused neurological indemnity, 98 resulting in autism spectrum disorders. These contentions are summarized in the Bridle Autism Petition For Vaccine Compensation filed by the families: As a pilot result of inseparable or more vaccinations covered junior to the Inhabitant Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, the vaccine in doubt has developed a neurodevelopmental upheaval, consisting of an Autism Spectrum Free-for-all or a similar derangement. The senior such lawsuit was filed in Texas in May of 2001 on behalf of five-year-old Joseph Alexander Counter (Piece v. According to his parents and attorneys, he was diagnosed with autism and then was found to 100 have high levels of mercury revelation. Later that year, a group of law firms area themselves the Mercury Vaccine Affinity filed group action lawsuits in 101 nine distinguishable states. While dozens of lawsuits experience been filed, they mainly slump into three divergent categories: 1. Actions claiming that thimerosal is an adulterant or a contaminant in a vaccine; 2. Actions seeking compensation as loss of consortium (be fond of and companionship) on behalf of parents of autistic children; and 97 Id. League actions seeking compensation looking for autistic children and medical monitoring as a service to unreserved populations of children who were exposed to mercury in vaccines. However, one exception allows lawsuits as regards vaccine injuries allegedly caused by an adulterant or a 102 contaminant intentionally added to the vaccine. In twin decisions in May of 2002, a Federal judge ruled that thimerosal could not be considered an adulterant or a contaminant, and claims filed on that basis were dismissed. A Growing Few of Scientists and Doctors Believe That a Relationship Between Thimerosal in Vaccines and Autism Spectrum Disorders is Plausible A. Introduction A growing swarm of respected scientists and researchers are convinced that there is a relationship between the abuse of thimerosal in teens vaccines and the growing rate of autism. At the word-for-word occasionally, chief officials from Federal vigorousness carefulness agencies and other plain health experts continue to demand that there is no corroboration of such a relationship. First, concerns nearly the utilize consume of thimerosal in vaccines existed in acknowledged robustness agencies as regards more than two decades in the vanguard action was entranced to carry away them from vaccines. The phlegmatic return to these legitimate concerns intent be discussed in the following stage of this divulge. Second, much more investigation needs to be done in advance any conclusive determinations can be made near vaccines and autism spectrum disorders. Developing more and outstrip digging data purposefulness be critically conspicuous to resolving the permissible disputes once again compensation for the benefit of children with autism, and restoring the nerve of the American public in vaccines. American Deeply products, et al; Order of District Court Dempster Samuel Kent; May 7, 2002. Nevertheless, the authors cautioned that if the vaccine triggered autistic disorders total a under age party of children who were predisposed to an adverse answer, the denizens studies that had been done to-date would be too blurred to detect them: It is prominent to recognize the inherited methodological limitations of such studies in establishing causality. Studies may not possess enough faithfulness to detect simple rare occurrences on a denizens constant. A poor entente of the hazard factors and dead duck to power a beau id‚al instance definition may also hamper the 105 capacity of epidemiological studies to detect rare adverse events. They also called for the sake of targeted studies to copy up on a groundbreaking series of case studies next to Dr. Andrew Wakefield of Consummate Britain, who stubborn that 12 British children who suffered from autism spectrum disorders and inveterate bowel 106 redness also had vaccine-strain measles virus in their tissues. Wakefield published further probing with larger philosophical populations accessory supporting a correlation between indelicate steady measles infection in the intestions and the outset of autism and afterward entercolitis. They did, regardless how, shape that such a kith is biologically plausible, and recommended much more inquire into on the issue. The reveal summarized: The commission concludes that although the premise that ex posure to thimerosal-containing vaccines could be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders is not established and rests on tortuous and piecemeal bumf, originally from analogies with methylmercury and levels of highest mercury direction from vaccines allowed in children, the premiss is biologically 108 believable. The report specifically cited the influenza vaccine, the diphtheria-tetanus toxoid vaccine, and some nasal sprays. They urged that, stuffed consideration be given sooner than take professional societies and guidance agencies to removing thimerosal from vaccines administered to infants, children or pregnant women in the Concerted States.

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It may be necessary to mitigate constraint urgently generic telmisartan 20mg on-line, vite and calcium carbonate-apatite) generic telmisartan 20 mg with mastercard. Obstruction can be teus or Klebsiella causes increased amounts of ammonia generic 80mg telmisartan amex, relieved by retrograde stent insertion (inveterately requires due to the self-possession of urease (which breaks down urea ordinary anaesthetic), or percutaneous nephrostomy in- into ammonia and carbon dioxide). Characteristically the dogged presents with an acutely boat swollen testis of immediate dawn, there may be a Clinical features summary of minor trauma or late resilient irritate. Later,agony,haema- Nausea and vomiting are unrefined associated symp- turia and impaired renal function. There may be depiction of before-mentioned self-resolving episodes of grief, markedly at eventide in girlish boys Investigations (can be associated with nocturnal earthy arousal that As in search urinary stones. If <10% renal function the kid- veals a red hemiscrotum, with an asymmetrically enormous, ney should be removed. The cremasteric response is stay away from in tor- sion (stroking or pinching the inside of the thigh should Management cause the ipsilateral testis to rise), but this reaction is not Unselfish surgery, or very much take it easy piecemeal breaking up of dependable below the seniority of 30 months or for 12 years. Nephrectomy is advised conducive to a can be difcult to single out singularly as the testis symptomatic stag horn calculus in a rotten functioning can also swell in this condition. Investigations Torsion of the testis Diagnosis is clinical and surgery should not be delayed. The scrotum is explored, the alteration is reversed and if the testis is feelings both testes are xed in arrange as the Shafting persuade is a bilateral defect. Aetiology Torsion occurs if the testis is insufciently xed via its Hydrocele drop jackstaff to the tunica vaginalis by the gubernaculum testis, so allowing it to misconstrue. Pathophysiology Twisting of the testis on the spermatic string leads to ve- Incidence/prevalence nous/haemorrhagic infarction. Aetiology Most hydroceles are idiopathic but may materialize subordinate Incidence/prevalence to trauma, infection or neoplasm. Pathophysiology Aqueous accumulates between the two layers (parietal and Aetiology/pathophysiology visceral) of the tunica vaginalis. It is thought to chance Thesearetheequivalentofvaricoseveins,duetothevalve due to imbalance of secretion/reabsorption of peritoneal leaets becoming useless, blood ows back down uid from these layers. Varicoceles chance more commonly on near the tirelessness of the processus vaginalis and can be the formerly larboard side merited to the upright drainage of the communistic associated with herniation of abdominal contents into spermatic seam into the renal vein, which is compressed the sac. Regularly the hydrocele covers the testis, tile, but numerous also from normal sperm counts. Testicular atrophy is thinking to swelling, a usual spermatic twine should be palpable materialize apposite to the lose raised temperature triggering (this differentiates a hydrocele from an inguinal hernia). A modest hydrocele transilluminates intimately, but if there is blood (a haematocele) or it is confirmed and the wall is Clinical features thickened, it does not. Patients may complain of a dragging sensation or aching pain in the scrotum, particularly on established. On palpation there is a gentle If there is any fear an ultrasound scan conrms the excrescence like a hobby of worms along the spermatic string, diagnosisandisusefultoexcludeanunderlyingtesticular which is compressible and disappears on duplicity at. Conduct Management Surgery is indicated in boys and junior males with asym- 1 Anysecondary producer should be identied and treated. Plot desire should not be attempted as there is a tile men with a varicocele, surgery has not been shown gamble of infection and bleeding. Ligation of the spermatic 3 If the hydrocele uid becomes infected or contains deposit can be either by unsealed or laparoscopic surgery. In blood, cut and drainage of pus are urgent, and older males who no longer force to take more children, appraisal of the scrotal contents to exclude an un- treatment with scrotal support and analgesia may be derlying tumour may be performed at that time. Aetiology/pathophysiology Clinical features Normally the foreskin does not draw back at descent and it Aswelling in the scrotum located upstairs and behind the may be months to years in the forefront it becomes retractile. In testes, event some patients wait on saying they have devel- congenital phimosis, the orice is too everyday from start oped a third testis. Surgery to unfasten the cyst(s) risks damaging the sper- Clinical features matic pathway, such that bilateral operations can agent r Ayoung adolescent with congenital phymosis may sire dif- sterility, and more tory removal ordinarily leads to culty with micturition, with ballooning of the pre- recurrence. Denition Ineptness to achieve or carry a sufciently rigid erection Complications r in community to have propagative coition. Extra episodes Recurring balanitis may arise apropos to secretions col- of enervation are considered stable, but if erectile dys- lecting directed a inexpertly retractile foreskin. Also called manful If apoorly retracting foreskin remains retracted after progenitive dysfunction. Incidence/prevalence r Phimosis increases the rate of penile cancer aside at least This has been underestimated in the quondam, due to the 10-fold. With Handling greater understanding, increased availability of treat- Symptomatic phimosis is treated around elective circum- ment and more widespread confabulation of the problem, cision. Circumcision is not required in asymptomatic 40% of men elderly 40 are recognised to procure some inch by inch childlike children, unless for strict reasons. In cases of of carnal dysfunction, increasing beside roughly 10% sharp-witted paraphimosis, the border is excised under accepted with each decade. Aetiology The prime mover is pyschogenic in 25% of cases, drugs (25%) and endocrine abnormalities (25%).

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This plus ultra uses the standard incidence and has advance at measure I buy telmisartan 40 mg with mastercard, corresponding to an exponential waiting on the dot et buy cheap telmisartan 20 mg on-line. Since the control epoch is short 20mg telmisartan, this nonpareil has no critical dynamics (births and deaths). Most of the unvaccinated cases were people relation to a unerring value that routinely does not accede to vaccination. Here the replacement covey at span zero is so, which is the product of the connection figure and the opening susceptible fraction so. Ifso > 1, then i(t) rst increases up to a climactic value imax = io + so 1/ [ln(so)]/ and then decreases to zero as t. The susceptible fraction s(t) is a decreasing function and the limiting value s is the one of a kind settled in (0, 1/) of the equation (2. Note that the device of a in keeping universal outbreak is an infective curve that rst increases from an introductory Io neighbourhood zero, reaches a crest, and then decreases toward zero as a work of organize. The susceptible fraction s(t) always decreases, but the nal susceptible fraction s is convincing. The epidemic dies to because, when the susceptible fraction s(t)goesbelow1/, the replacement horde s(t) goes under the sun 1. The results in the statement are epidemiologically reasonable, since the infectives up and there is no epidemic, if enough people are already exempt so that a in character infective initially replaces itself with no more than one new infective (so 1). But if a run-of-the-mill infective initially replaces itself with more than joined new infective (so > 1), then infectives initially augment so that an epidemic occurs. The move at which an wide-ranging progresses depends on the characteristics of the disorder. The equilibrium points along the s axis are neutrally unstable for s>1/ and are neutrally well-balanced for s<1/. Say that the threshold result here involves the commencing replacement several so and does not mean the basic duplicate tot up R0. Pro this model the verge number is understood nearby R0 = = /( + ), which is the connection rate times the average death-adjusted transmissible while 1/( + ). If 1 or io =0, then solution paths starting in T approach the disease-free equilibrium conceded by s =1and i =0. If R0 = 1, then the replacement count s is less than 1 when io > 0, so that the infec- tives dwindle to zero. However, after the infective fraction has decreased to a gross unfluctuating, the ennuyant processes of the deaths of recovered people and the births of restored susceptibles grad- ually (over about 10 or 20 years) increment the susceptible fraction until s(t) is strapping enough that another smaller epidemic occurs. This process of alternating express epi- demics and dawdling regeneration of susceptibles continues as the paths approach the en- demic equilibrium postulated in the theorem. At this endemic equilibrium the replacement number se is 1, which is jesuitical since if the replacement number were greater than or less than 1, the infective fraction i(t) would be increasing or decreasing, each to each. Admonish that the ie coordinate of the endemic equilibrium is cold as <1, coincides with the disease-free equilibrium value of zero at = 1, and becomes positive representing >1. This equilibrium given beside se =1/ and ie = ( 1)/ is fickle for the benefit of <1 and is locally asymptotically strong inasmuch as >1, while the disease-free equilibrium given about s = 1 and i =0is locally invariable for <1 and undecided for the purpose >1. Thus these two equilibria swop stabilities as the endemic equilibrium moves in the course the disease-free equilibrium when = 1 and becomes a well-defined, epidemiologically workable, locally asymptotically well-founded equilibrium when >1. The following illustration of the results in the assumption and paragraph above is song urge why the vital duplicate number R0 has behove thoroughly tolerant of in the epidemiology letters. If the root proliferation number R0 (which is everlastingly rival to the connection swarm when the unrestricted population is susceptible) is less than 1, then the disease-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable and the malady cannot invade the population. But if R0 > 1, then the disease-free equilibrium is vacillating with a abominable instruction into the firm si quadrant, so the malady can invade in the nuance that any track starting with a small decided io moves into the favourable si quadrant where the disorder persists. This unrealistically pint-sized standard in the main lifetime has been chosen so that the endemic equilibrium is understandably superior to before the horizontal axis and the spiraling into the endemic equilibrium can be seen. They unrealistically up that the residents is unvarying and homoge- neously mixing, whereas it is known that mixing depends on various factors including adulthood (children inveterately get more adequate contacts per broad daylight than adults). More than that, dierent geographic and social-economic groups have dierent friend rates. By using statistics on the susceptible fractions so and s at the beginning and end of epidemics, this way can be used to guess contact numbers in behalf of specic diseases [100]. Using blood samples from freshmen at Yale University [75], the fractions susceptible to rubella at the commencement and aim of the freshman year were create to be 0. For the 1957 Asian Flu (H2N2 ilk A struggle of inuenza) in Melbourne, Australia, the fractions so = 1 and s =0. This propose to is pretty naive, because the general seropositivity in a population decreases to zero as the initial passive freedom declines and then increases as people period and are exposed to infectives.

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A stiff rank of cross-reactivity can be expected because of the homology of enolases present in disparate organisms (Cladosporium species) and plants (tomato) 20mg telmisartan for sale. However purchase telmisartan 20 mg without a prescription, preliminary studies in our laboratory of 26 haleness dolour workers with latex allergy failed to expose IgE binding with the recombinant latex and fungal enolases (unpublished results) telmisartan 40 mg lowest price. This type 1 chitinase shares homology with N-terminal hevein domain and also shares epitopes with chitinases from avocado and banana ( 92,93). The cross-reactivity and vaccinated responses of Hev b 11 in allergic reaction tease not been fully elucidated; hence, it is designated as a stripling allergen in latex allergy. This 30-kDa protein exhibits expansive line homology with chitinase and lysozymes from different sources (75,83). Purified hevamine demonstrated IgE reactivity with at worst 1 in 29 latex-allergic sera tested and from now are not considered as an important allergen in inducing latex allergy ( 83). The paucity of a hevein-like domain near the N-terminal province of the protein may be creditable as a service to its minimal allergenicity in latex-allergic patients. Several other latex allergens play a joke on been identified close two-dimensional immunoblotting and microsequencing ( 75). These proteins with course similarities to spinach, rice, and tomato triose phosphate isomerases and distinct proteosane subunits are hitherto to be purified and characterized after their character in latex allergy. Two-dimensional immunoblot demonstrates more than 200 peptides, with more than 50 spots demonstrating untouched reactivity with IgE. This widespread cross-reactivity total individual plant proteins may be due to the adjacency of common T- and B-cell epitopes in them. Although extensive oeuvre has been carried for all to see to identify the proteins snarled in latex allergy, not much information is available on the cross-reactivity of latex allergens with proteins from other sources. In a recent think over, Beezhold and associates demonstrated the co-sensitization between latex and various foods at near skin-prick testing ( 120). Cross-reactive allergens in banana look in very many molecular majority ranges between 23 and 47 kDa and in avocado between 27 and 91 kDa ( 121,122 and 123). Akasawa and colleagues identified an avocado chitinase as one of the cross-reacting proteins using sera from latex-allergic patients ( 124). Yagami and co-workers proposed that the pathogenesis-related latex proteins such as chitinase and b-1,3-glucanase are unrealized cross-reacting proteins because they are common in abundant mill families and possess comparable amino acid sequences and immunologic properties (91). In a recent study, Blanco and colleagues showed that chestnut and avocado font 1 chitinases with N-terminal hevein-like bailiwick are the important allergens that cross-react with latex and suggested that type 1 chitinases are the pan allergens responsible towards the latex-fruit syndrome ( 119). The cross-reactivity between fruits, pollen, and latex is also attributed to the well conserved secrete allergen profilin identified in all these different species ( 30). These results demonstrated a communal boosting effect of pollen and latex sensitization in vivo, which may be seen also in polysensitized plant allergic patients. This study confirmed that mice stimulated with latex proteins develop a predominantly T H2 cytokine reaction. The results indicated that eosinophils and IgE antibodies compete with a significant role in the immunopathogenesis of latex-induced allergy and anaphylaxis. In another study, latex-immunized mice evaluated past fuselage plethysmography exhibited a valued replace with in pulmonary conductance (G L) and compliance (Cdyn) in concordance with an asthma-like effect. The latex-allergic answer in this on is incomparable in that the lead challenge with latex antigen itself resulted in a valuable airway response (128). The accumulated details from unrefined models advocate that the nature of sensitization in patients may be solely dependent on the standard of antibody assembly and the design of cytokine saying by means of allergen-specific T lymphocytes ( 126,127,128 and 129). The studies using crass ammoniated latex, nonammoniated latex cytosol, and extracts demonstrated enhanced lymphoproliferative responses in latex sensitized patients ( 130). The clear serologic patterns of patients against purified allergens were also reflected in their cell-mediated unsusceptible responses against these allergens. The monoclonal antibody affinity purified Hev b 3 exhibited proliferative responses in spina bifida patients, but not in form supervision look after workers ( 81). In another muse about, purified Hev b 1 induced lymphoproliferation in 52% of latex-allergic patients, compared with 25% of latex-exposed healthy subjects, suggesting that Hev b 1 is a applicable allergen in form provide for workers ( 133). Whereas, Hev b 2 showed stimulation in 56% patients, with more than 70% correlation between stimulation catalogue and circumscribed serum IgE binding ( 112). In a separate lucubrate, recombinant Hev b 5 demonstrated T-cell stimulation in five of six fettle tend workers with latex allergy ( 134). In vitro swot conducted using overlapping synthetic peptides of latex allergen Hev b 1 demonstrated that B lymphocytes of patients recognized a variety of epitopes within the same allergen ( 137) (Table 31. In two separate studies, linear and conformational epitopes of prohevein get been identified; in both the studies, two linear epitopes were detected in the N-terminal region of Hev b 6 (114,141). B-cell epitopes of Hev b 6 definitive respecting IgE antibody with sera from either latex-sensitized spina bifida patients or vigorousness anxiety workers or common on both patients groups were reported. The IgE-binding epitopes of Hev b 1 and Hev b 3 were well-thought-out with sera from both constitution attend to workers and spina bifida patients with latex allergy ( 110). Of the eight epitopes of Hev b 1 that reacted with sera from the spina bifida patients, lone three impending the C-terminal aim showed binding with the sera of well-being trouble workers.